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A War Correspondent#8217;s First Duty is suny binghamton, Patriotism. The statement, “A war correspondent’s first duty is patriotism”, implies that a war correspondent’s job is primarily to report information that rallies the public’s support for its nation’s war endeavors. This statement immediately raises a debate over the role of the media in a democratic society, and more specifically brings into question the role of professional journalists covering their nation’s participation in war. An independent and valerie francisco, critical press is priceless to the functioning democracy of does suny binghamton have essay a nation. Interwoven in the ethics of professional journalism are ideals of “responsibility”, “objectivity”, and “truth”, which are supposed to distinguish the media as a credible source of good teaching essay information for the public. The history of war correspondence is characterized by the tense relationship between the suny binghamton have media and the military, as well as the essay marriage conflict between what is seen as “patriotic” versus “un-patriotic” news coverage. Because of the continual reshaping of war itself, as well as the does suny binghamton essay changing rapport between state and press as media has developed, the nature of war reporting has evolved in good teaching essay the last two centuries.
A critical examination of war coverage in Western society during conflicts like the Vietnam and Gulf Wars exposes the implications of war correspondent’s role in shaping public opinion regarding its nation’s involvement in war. The role of the does suny media in the functioning of a democratic nation is inextricably intertwined with that nation’s ideals of civil liberties, which, in a free society, are supposed to ensure every citizen’s unhindered access to information. Be Allowed In School Essay! The media is supposed to provide the people of a nation with objective, accurate information. This reporting of news in turn shapes the populous’ judgments regarding the policies their elected representatives enact, such as the decision to go to war. The notion that citizens in a free society are entitled to “freedom of information”, and thus a free press, is critical to the credibility of democratic institutions that are established by the people to protect the people and their national interests. Suny Have A Supplement Essay! And yet here lies the delicate and often difficult balance between a state and should in school persuasive, its independent news agencies. While a citizen’s access to public information is regarded as a civil liberty ensured by the state, his own government may view a level of secrecy as necessary to secure the democracy that allows for those same civil liberties. Suny Binghamton A Supplement Essay! This tension is especially heightened during times of philosophy essay war. Thus, a conflict arises between the public “right to know” and “national security”, which is arguably to some extent derived from have a supplement military secrecy. The clash between public opinion and the government’s reaction to scarlet letter, public opinion is the lifeblood of liberal democracy, and the role of the media in contributing to a healthy public discourse must be appreciated.
More specifically, the role of the war correspondent as the public’s “watchdog” over essay a nation’s military efforts is crucial to the functioning of a free society. In addition, the media’s role in political debates is distinct to democracy as opposed to other forms of state control, and is why it is “patriotic” for journalists to challenge the mainstream narratives of political elites and military leaders. Essay In The Scarlet! If the media fails to provide unbiased, critical, and scrutinizing assessments of information provided by the government during times of war, its role is diminished to promoting propaganda. The idea of the press publishing reports that avoid questioning their country’s war effort should not be confused with unwavering patriotism. Nationalistic commentaries espousing “patriotic” jingles are characteristic of totalitarianism, and suny a supplement, have no place in liberal democracies. Ideally, “patriotism” in democratic societies obliges citizens and journalists to embrace the Socratic tradition of statistics thesis critically questioning the actions of their government. However, this ideal is not the norm and becomes what distinguishes the “watchdogs” from the government’s “lapdogs”. In reference to the media’s tendency to stray, Daya Kishan Thussu and Des Freedman write, “Mainstream media reproduce the framework of political and military leaders and in binghamton doing so provide propaganda rather than “disinterested” journalism.” This statement raises the issue of whether war correspondents in being “objective” are being “patriotic” or whether in being “patriotic” are rendered unable to relay the statistics “truth”. Specifically, the does binghamton essay identity of dissertation a war correspondent is binghamton have a supplement essay, rooted in the idea of impartial “objectivity” aimed at reaching the be allowed persuasive essay “truth”, yet in communicating their interpretations they may adopt a “patriotic” posture. The confusion lies in what is considered “patriotic” versus “un-patriotic” correspondence. For example, if a journalist reports a successful military campaign conducted by her country it may be perceived as “patriotic”, however, if that journalist reports an unsanctioned bombing by her government that damages public support for the war this may instead be viewed as “un-patriotic”.
Regardless, the journalist is doing her job and depending on her own value judgments will determine whether she is doing her “patriotic” duty. In reality, war correspondents cannot be truly “objective” as detached observers looking in from the outside. Howard Tumber and Marina Prentoulis write, “The problem posed for participant journalists…was how to respond when events force a choice between professional commitment and participatory loyalties.” The journalistic value of “objectivity” motivates war correspondents to critically report the carnage they witness in war, and this influences public opinion either in favor or in opposition to the war. By the same token, as citizens themselves reporters are influenced by does binghamton have a supplement the general consensus, which inhibits unbiased news coverage. Essay Scarlet Letter! The idea of “journalistic patriotism” creates fissures between self-censorship and the vigilant responsibility of the does suny have essay media in democracies. The history of war corresponding is laced with the idea of “patriotism” as a responsibility, which may run counter to ideas of essay on symbolism scarlet letter integrity within journalism as a profession.
The free press is essentially indebted to the public, but operates within the macro-structures of national and economic interests. Therefore, its public audiences, the government, and corporate interests simultaneously pressure the media to respond in a certain fashion. However, early war correspondents distinguished themselves around those concepts of “responsibility”, “objectivity”, and “truth” no matter the costs. This held true for the “father” of modern war corresponding, Sir William Howard Russell, as well as Edwin Godkin, who during the does have a supplement Crimean War sent correspondences criticizing the British military’s activities, efficiency, and participation in this War. Their reports affected the public’s perception of the War, yet also led the military to re-evaluate its approach and the conditions of valerie its forces.
Gen. Peter Gration writes, “…. It was later determined he [Russell] was reporting the truth, and…the ministers themselves would not have been made aware of the Army’s deplorable state had it not been for the powers of the binghamton have essay press.” This highlights the indispensable role of the media. Yet more importantly, highlights why the military began to view the media as a means to rally and shape public support and thus began to pressure journalists to do their “duty”. Subsequently, in statistics the First and does suny, Second World Wars, war correspondent’s pumped out “patriotic” dispatches.
War correspondents inflated reports about statistics military successes and deflated the realities of trench warfare. Suny! Gen. Gration writes: By the start of the First World War, the British had learnt that the press was indeed a powerful tool and used it to boost popular support for the war effort and…During the Second World War the media…did nothing to swing popular support from the efforts at should be allowed persuasive the battlefront. If the road to hell is suny have essay, paved with good intentions, then at thesis this time war correspondents were on that path. War correspondents are not supposed to promote propaganda that feeds into the continuation of does suny global conflicts, yet reporters have the same fears and anger as regular citizens and may forget their necessary role in reporting objectively the brutal conditions of war. The meat grinding effects of trench warfare were not initially realized by the public, and government officials had no incentive to be allowed in school, pressure generals to change their tactics. However, there is suny binghamton a supplement essay, no doubt that Britain’s resilience and essay of love, will to does suny a supplement essay, fight in these great Wars were influenced by reporter’s optimistic coverage. This had implications for future practices within news coverage of war and the manner in which the military interacts with the media.
Furthermore, the military’s relationship with the media’s coverage creates conflicts between the francisco state and suny have essay, war correspondents who refuse to succumb to state ideas of good philosophy ‘patriotism’. This brings to surface the inherent antagonism between freedom of information and military operational security. In war, the military aims to achieve national objectives, which may be undermined by the “loose lips” of an over zealous war correspondent. Binghamton A Supplement! For example, during the Falklands conflict of 1982, the release of information on the plans for an attack compromised the lives of British troops and stepped outside of the boundaries of proper war coverage. At the same time, the military often views the essay of love media as a mechanism to manipulate information, an invaluable tool as national support of the war effort is believed to be vital to victory. However, the fundamental ethics of journalism and its almost elemental role in democracy behooves journalists to resist reporting every word from a general’s mouth at face value.
The media sometimes tends to report information that exaggerates hostile intentions, granted the military may divulge misinformation, but reporters must investigate and binghamton a supplement essay, must not contribute to the escalation of conflicts. Hence, war correspondents walk a thin line between self-restraint and self-censorship, and face the burden of reporting horrors they witness and not simply what they are told. This is an incredible task, especially when the military controls access to the frontline and decides which “patriotic” correspondent gets to cover a given story. Media coverage of the Vietnam War serves as an example of the interactions between the media and the military and the impact of the media on public opinion. The Vietnam War was engulfed in political controversy over the presence of the United States in South Vietnam.
At first, support for the war was enthusiastic and optimistic, but as the war dragged on and images of the horrors of war were beamed into scarlet letter the living rooms across America, morale eroded. Televised coverage of war and the placement of “embedded” journalists in army units were meant to create cohesion among troops and the home front, but this idea eventually backfired. Daniel C. Hallin explains, “The mobilization of public opinion…needed to be organized systematically, and the press was naturally considered central in that effort.” The press was granted access to the battlefield to establish credibility and does suny binghamton have a supplement essay, imply that rights to a free press were not being trampled. Of Love Marriage! However, reporters were expected to follow strict military guidelines at their discretion, which requires the correspondent to make value judgments and observe from suny have essay a “patriotic” point of view.’ The military’s concerns over media degrading popular support caused it to impose some restrictions, yet the media continued to report the “truth” and the “truth” was that war is valerie francisco, hell. The media coverage of Vietnam was characterized by both the ability of war correspondents to does suny binghamton, change public opinion, and challenged perceptions of the media’s role. Correspondents that reported American military blunders were condemned, and news that reported “official information” was favored as “patriotic journalism”. Political and military leaders believed the media caused the degeneration of essay of love marriage national support.
Carlyle A. Thayer writes, “…. the media’s negative and erroneous coverage…contributed to undermining America’s national will to continue the fight.” In all fairness, reporters were not bent on discrediting American forces, and did not fail in supporting American troops. In some cases, reporters restrained from releasing information that might have endangered soldiers, and in other cases, reported news that morally and ideologically favored America’s position. William M. Hammond writes, “Since whatever they said or wrote could be made to binghamton have essay, serve one agenda or another, they had altered the war by their very presence, becoming as much a part of it as any soldier in the field.” The bulk of the information reported came from official military sources, and war correspondents did their “duty” of reporting the good teaching physical, emotional, and psychological costs of does binghamton a supplement war. The government and military blamed war correspondents for loss of morale, but increasing casualties and political circles at home did the most damage. Moreover, in reaction to the effects of war correspondence in Vietnam, the Gulf War of edit free online 1991 is does binghamton have essay, a further example the essay on symbolism in the scarlet military’s attempts to manage “journalistic patriotism” at the expense of journalism’s professional integrity. During the Gulf War correspondents continued to attempt to critically assess the experiences of war, but the military had plans to achieve their objectives with as little interference from the media as possible. This inherently raises conflicts of interests, and citizens of liberal democracies suffer if they are kept in the dark about the actions of their government and military. Fred Halliday proposes that war correspondents did not report unsavory news because they feared being criticized as “un-patriotic” and states, “In fulfilling a responsibility to provide news, and to avoid undermining a country’s war effort, other responsibilities, including those to educate the public in does a supplement the broader issues, were neglected.” This has dire consequences for democracy and is not the ideal “patriotic” role of the war correspondent. Unfortunately, the Gulf War also highlights the victory of the military over the war correspondent and valerie, illuminates why the media must regain its footing.
Essentially, journalists were kept in the dark about military operations and were spoon-feed information from headquarters, which did not go without criticism. Have! Col. David H. Valerie! Hackworth states: All this is good for security, good for the policymakers but bad for freedom and bad for democracy, and it is also bad for those young soldiers, sailors and airmen who were out does suny a supplement essay, there fighting for freedom which included the muzzled press corps’ right to tell their story. The war correspondents “patriotic duty” is to continue to expose the “truth” that encourages public discourse and invigorates debate about the legitimacy of war. If the first casualty of war is truth, it is the role of the war correspondent to find it and bring it back to life. The Gulf War in the eyes of many journalists can be seen as a tragedy in war reporting and a triumph in terms of the military’s pursuit of national support at the expense of the public’s civil liberties. Either way, depending on the point of view of the spectator, war correspondence is m.phil statistics, a determinate of public opinion and does suny binghamton a supplement, its role will remain pertinent to the health of online a vibrant and free society.
In conclusion, the statement discussed here may imply that it is virtuous for does suny binghamton have essay, the war correspondent to publish news that strictly promotes national support behind the good teaching philosophy government in does have a supplement times of war. However, the be allowed role of the media in democracy is crucial to the way of life of citizens that make up its political constituency. Because of this, war correspondents must stick to does binghamton have, ideas of “responsibility”, “objectivity”, and “truth” in order to ensure that the public and democratic institutions remain aware of the wider issues involved. The relationship between the media and the military will remain hostile, but this is of value because the healthy friction produces the energy for democracy to progress. The “patriotic” correspondent is vigilant and questions all she witnesses in war. Gration, Gen. Peter (1992), ‘Keynote Address’, in Peter R. Essay Free! Young, ed., Defence and suny binghamton have a supplement essay, the.
Media in Time of Limited War (London: Frank Cass Co. LTD.), pp. 15-23. Hackworth, Col. David H. (1992), ‘The Gulf Crisis: The Media Point of View’, in Peter R. Young, ed., Defence and the Media in Time of Limited War (London: Frank Cass Co. LTD.), pp. 182-191.
Halliday, Fred (1999), ‘Manipulation and Limits: Media Coverage of the Gulf War, 1990-1991’, in Tim Allen and Jean Seaton, eds., The Media of Conflict: War Reporting and essay scarlet letter, Representations of Ethnic Violence (London: Zed Books LTD.), pp. 127-146. Hallin, Daniel C. Does Binghamton! (1986), The “Uncensored War”: The Media and Vietnam. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press) Hammond, William M. On Symbolism! (1998), Reporting Vietnam: Media and Military at does have a supplement War. (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas) Hayden, Bill (1992), ‘Opening Address’, in Peter R. Young, ed., Defence and the Media. in Time of free online Limited War (London: Frank Cass Co. LTD.), pp. 5-14. Magder, Ted (2003), ‘Watching What We Say: Global Communication in a Time of Fear’, in Daya Kishan Thussu and Des Freedman, eds., War and Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7 (London: Sage Publications LTD.), pp. 28-44. Does Suny Have Essay! Ridley, Yvonne (2003), ‘In The Fog of War’, in Daya Kishan Thussu and Des Freedman, eds., War and Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7 (London: Sage Publications LTD.), pp.
249-252. Taylor, Phillip M. Essay Online! (1992), War and the Media: Propaganda and Persuasion in does suny have a supplement the Gulf. War (Oxford and should cellphones, New York: Manchester University Press) Thayer, Carlyle A. (1992), ‘Vietnam: A Critical Analysis’, in Peter R. Young, ed., Defence and the Media in Time of Limited War (London: Frank Cass Co. LTD.), pp. 89-115. Thussu, Daya Kishan and Des Freedman (2003), ‘Introduction’, in Daya Kishan Thussu. and Des Freedman, eds., War and Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7 (London: Sage Publications LTD.), pp. 1-12.
Tumber, Howard and Marina Prentoulis (2003), ‘Journalists Under Fire: Subcultures, Objectivity and Emotional Literacy’, in does have a supplement Daya Kishan Thussu and Des Freedman, eds., War and Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7 (London: Sage Publications LTD.), pp. 215-230. Written by: James Whitcomb Riley. Written at: King#8217;s College, London. All content on the website is published under the online following Creative Commons License. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing. E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by suny binghamton essay an all volunteer team.
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Question about Essay for App — College Confidential
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Most of binghamton have essay, us are certain that we have free will, though what exactly this amounts to is much less certain. According to David Hume, the question of the nature of free will is “the most contentious question of metaphysics.” If this is correct, then figuring out what free will is will be no small task indeed. Minimally, to say that an agent has free will is to say that the m.phil statistics thesis, agent has the capacity to choose his or her course of action. But animals seem to suny binghamton have, satisfy this criterion, and we typically think that only cellphones in school, persons, and not animals, have free will.
Let us then understand free will as the have a supplement, capacity unique to persons that allows them to control their actions. It is controversial whether this minimal understanding of what it means to have a free will actually requires an agent to have a specific faculty of will, whether the term free will is essay on symbolism in the scarlet letter, simply shorthand for other features of persons, and whether there really is such a thing as free will at all. This article considers why we should care about suny have essay free will and how freedom of will relates to freedom of action. It canvasses a number of the dominant accounts of what the should be allowed, will is, and then explores the persistent question of the have a supplement essay, relationship between free will and causal determinism, articulating a number of different positions one might take on the issue. For example, does determinism imply that there is no free will, as the incompatibilists argue, or does it allow for free will, as the compatibilists argue? This article explores several influential arguments that have been given in favor of these two dominant positions on the relationship between free will and essay of love, causal determinism. Finally, there is a brief examination of how free will relates to theological determinism and logical determinism. 1. Does Binghamton Essay? Free Will, Free Action and Moral Responsibility. Why should we even care whether or not agents have free will?
Probably the best reason for caring is that free will is closely related to two other important philosophical issues: freedom of of love, action and moral responsibility. However, despite the close connection between these concepts, it is important not to conflate them. We most often think that an agent’s free actions are those actions that she does as a result of exercising her free will. Consider a woman, Allison, who is contemplating a paradigmatic free action, such as whether or not to walk her dog. Allison might say to herself, “I know I should walk the dog—he needs the exercise. Does Suny Have Essay? And while I don’t really want to walk him since it is cold outside, I think overall the best decision to thesis, make is that I should take him for suny binghamton a supplement essay, a walk.” Thus, we see that one reason we care about free will is that it seems necessary for free action—Allison must first decide, or choose, to walk the essay, dog before she actually takes him outside for his walk. Suny Binghamton A Supplement Essay? If we assume that human actions are those actions that result from the rational capacities of humans, we then see that the m.phil statistics, possibility of free action depends on the possibility of does binghamton have a supplement essay, free will: to say that an agent acted freely is minimally to say that the agent was successful in carrying out a free volition or choice. Various philosophers have offered just such an account of freedom. Teaching Philosophy? Thomas Hobbes suggested that freedom consists in there being no external impediments to an agent doing what he wants to does suny binghamton essay, do: “A free agent is he that can do as he will , and forbear as he will, and be allowed in school persuasive, that liberty is the absence of external impediments .” In An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding , David Hume thought that free will (or liberty, to use his term) is simply the binghamton have, “power of acting or of not acting, according to the determination of the will: that is, if we choose to remain at rest, we may; if we choose to move, we also may.… This hypothetical liberty is universally allowed to should be allowed in school essay, belong to everyone who is not a prisoner and in chains.” This suggests that freedom is simply the ability to select a course of action, and an agent is free if he is not being prevented by some external obstacle from completing that course of action. Thus, Hobbes and Hume would hold that Allison is free to walk her dog so long as nothing prevents her from have, carrying out her decision to should in school persuasive essay, walk her dog, and she is free not to does suny binghamton have essay, walk her dog so long as nothing would compel her to walk her dog if she would decide not to. However, one might still believe this approach fails to on symbolism in the scarlet, make an important distinction between these two related, but conceptually distinct, kinds of freedom: freedom of will versus freedom of action.
This distinction is motivated by the apparent fact that agents can possess free will without also having freedom of action. Suppose that before Allison made the choice to walk the dog, she was taking a nap. And while Allison slept, there was a blizzard that moved through the area. The wind has drifted the snow up against does suny binghamton have essay, the front of her house so that it is impossible for Allison to get out her front door and walk her dog even if she wanted to. Good Essay? So here we have a case involving free will, because Allison has chosen to take the dog for does binghamton have, a walk, but not involving free action, because Allison is not able to take her dog for a walk. Whether or not one can have freedom of action without free will depends on teaching philosophy essay one’s view of what free will is. Also, the truth of causal determinism would not entail that agents lack the freedom to do what they want to does binghamton a supplement essay, do. An agent could do what she wants to do, even if she is causally determined to do that action. Thus, both Hobbes and edit online, Hume are rightly characterized as compatibilists. Even if there is suny a supplement, a distinction between freedom of will and freedom of action, it appears that free will is necessary for the performance of free actions.
If Allison is brainwashed during her nap to want to walk her dog, then even if no external impediment prevents her from carrying through with this decision, we would say that her taking the dog for a walk is not a free action. Presumably, the reason why it would not be a free action is because, in the case of brainwashing, Allison’s decision does not arise from her free will. Thus, it looks like free will might be a necessary condition for free action, even if the two are distinct. In what follows, the phrase acting with free will means engaging in an action as the result of the teaching philosophy essay, utilization of does a supplement, free will. Use of the phrase does not deny the distinction between free will and free action. The second reason to care about free will is essay in the letter, that it seems to be required for moral responsibility. While there are various accounts of what exactly moral responsibility is, it is widely agreed that moral responsibility is does suny binghamton a supplement, distinct from essay of love, causal responsibility. Consider a falling branch that lands on a car, breaking its window.
While the branch is causally responsible for the broken window, it is not morally responsible for it because branches are not moral agents. Binghamton Have A Supplement Essay? Depending on in the letter one’s account of causation, it also might be possible to be morally responsible for an event or state of does have, affairs even if one is be allowed persuasive essay, not causally responsible for have, that same event or state of affairs. For present purposes, let us simply say that an agent is morally responsible for an event or state of affairs only if she is the essay on symbolism scarlet letter, appropriate recipient of moral praise or moral blame for suny a supplement essay, that event or state of affairs (an agent can thus be morally responsible even if no one, including herself, actually does blame or praise her for essay free, her actions). According to the dominant view of the relationship between free will and moral responsibility, if an agent does not have free will, then that agent is not morally responsible for her actions. For example, if Allison is does binghamton have essay, coerced into doing a morally bad act, such as stealing a car, we shouldn’t hold her morally responsible for this action since it is not an action that she did of her own free will. Some philosophers do not believe that free will is required for moral responsibility. According to be allowed in school persuasive, John Martin Fischer, human agents do not have free will, but they are still morally responsible for their choices and actions. Does Binghamton Have? In a nutshell, Fischer thinks that the francisco, kind of control needed for moral responsibility is does suny binghamton have, weaker than the kind of control needed for free will.
Furthermore, he thinks that the truth of causal determinism would preclude the kind of good teaching philosophy, control needed for binghamton a supplement, free will, but that it wouldn’t preclude the kind of control needed for moral responsibility. See Fischer (1994). As this example shows, virtually every issue pertaining to free will is contested by various philosophers. However, many think that the significance of good philosophy essay, free will is not limited to binghamton have a supplement essay, its necessity for free action and moral responsibility. Various philosophers suggest that free will is also a requirement for agency, rationality, the autonomy and dignity of good, persons, creativity, cooperation, and the value of friendship and love [see Anglin (1990), Kane (1998) and Ekstrom (1999)].
We thus see that free will is central to many philosophical issues. Nearly every major figure in the history of philosophy has had something or other to suny a supplement, say about free will. The present section considers three of the most prominent theories of what the good teaching essay, will is. The faculties model of the will has its origin in the writings of ancient philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle, and suny have a supplement essay, it was the dominant view of the will for much of medieval and modern philosophy [see Descartes (1998) and the discussion of of love marriage, Aquinas in Stump (2003)]. It still has numerous proponents in the contemporary literature. What is distinct about suny have a supplement free agents, according to valerie francisco, this model, is their possession of certain powers or capacities. All living things possess some capacities, such as the capacities for growth and reproduction. What is unique about free agents, however, is that they also possess the capacities for intellection and volition. Does Binghamton A Supplement? Another way of saying this is that free agents alone have the faculties of intellect and will. It is in virtue of on symbolism in the scarlet, having these additional faculties, and the interaction between them, that agents have free will. The intellect, or the rational faculty, is the power of cognition.
As a result of its cognitions, the intellect presents various things to the will as good under some description. To return to the case of Allison contemplating walking her dog, Allison’s intellect might evaluate walking the dog as good for the health of the dog. Furthermore, all agents that have an intellect also have a will. The will, or the volitional faculty, is an appetite for the good; that is, it is naturally drawn to suny have, goodness. The will, therefore, cannot pursue an option that the francisco dissertation, intellect presents as good in no way. The will is also able to command the other faculties; the will can command the body to move or the intellect to consider something. In the case of suny have, Allison, the will could command the body to pick up the leash, attach it to the dog, and go outside for a walk. Statistics? As Aquinas, a proponent of this view of the suny binghamton a supplement, will, puts it: “Only an agent endowed with an good philosophy, intellect can act with a judgment which is free, in suny binghamton a supplement so far as it apprehends the common note of goodness; from which it can judge this or the edit online, other thing to be good. Consequently, wherever there is intellect, there is free will” ( Summa Theologiae , q. 59 a. Does Suny Essay? 3). Thus, through the interaction between the intellect and will, an agent has free will to pursue something that it perceives as good.
A widely influential contemporary account of the will is Harry Frankfurt’s hierarchical view of the will [see Frankfurt (1971)]. Of Love Marriage? This account is binghamton have, also sometimes called a structuralist or mesh account of the will, since a will is free if it has a certain internal structure or mesh among the various levels of desires and volitions. According to the hierarchical model, agents can have different kinds of desires. Some desires are desires to good essay, do a particular action; for example, Allison may desire to go jogging. Call these desires 1st order desires. But even if Allison doesn’t desire to go jogging, she may nevertheless desire to be the does suny essay, kind of person who desires to go jogging. Valerie Francisco Dissertation? In other words, she may desire to have a certain 1st order desire. Call desires of does binghamton, this sort 2nd order desires. If agents also have further desires to have particular 2nd order desires, one could construct a seemingly infinite hierarchy of of love, desires. Not all of an agent’s desires result in does have a supplement essay action.
In fact, if one has conflicting desires, then it is impossible for an agent to satisfy all her desires. Good Teaching? Suppose that Allison not only essay, desires to run, but that she also desires to should essay, stay curled up in bed, where it is does essay, nice and warm. Essay? In such a case, Allison cannot fulfill both of her 1st order desires. If Allison decides to act on does suny a supplement essay her desire to run, we say that her desire to run has moved her to action. An effective desire of this sort is called a volition; a volition is a desire that moves the agent all the essay marriage, way to action.
Similarly, one can differentiate between a mere 2nd order desire (simply a desire to does binghamton have essay, have a certain desire) and a 2nd order volition (a desire for a desire to be allowed in school essay, become one’s will, or a desire for a desire to does suny, become a volition). According to the hierarchical view of the will, free will consists in valerie having 2nd order volitions. Does Have A Supplement? In other words, an agent has a free will if she is able to have the thesis, sort of will that she wants to have. An agent acts on her own free will if her action is the result of a 1st order desire that she wants to have a supplement, become a 1st order volition. Hierarchical views of the will are problematic, however, because it looks as if certain sorts of questionable manipulation can be compatible with this view’s account of free will. According to the view under consideration, Allison has free will with regard to going jogging if she has a 2nd order desire that her 1st order desire to go jogging will move her to go jogging. Nothing in edit free online this account, however, depends on how she got these desires.
Even if she were manipulated, via brainwashing, for example, into having her 2nd order desire for her 1st order desire to go running become her will, Allison has the right mesh between her various orders of suny have a supplement, desires to marriage, qualify as having free will. This is an untoward consequence. While more robust hierarchical accounts of the will have the resources for explaining why Allison might not be free in this case, it is widely agreed that cases of does suny binghamton have, manipulation and coercion are problematic for solely structural accounts of the will [see Ekstrom (1999), Fischer (1994), Kane, (2005), Pereboom (2001) and van Inwagen (1983)]. c. Good Essay? Reasons-Responsive View of the Will. A third treatment of free will takes as its starting point the claim that agency involves a sensitivity to suny, certain reasons. An agent acts with free will if she is responsive to the appropriate rational considerations, and she does not act with a free will if she lacks such responsiveness. To see what such a view amounts to, consider again the case of Allison and her decision to walk her dog. A reasons-responsive view of the will says that Allison’s volition to in school, walk her dog is free if, had she had certain reasons for does binghamton a supplement, not walking her dog, she would not have decided to essay on symbolism in the scarlet letter, walk her dog. Suny Have? Imagine what would have happened had Allison turned on the television after waking from her nap and learned of the blizzard before deciding to walk her dog. M.phil Thesis? Had she known of the blizzard, she would have had a good reason for suny have essay, deciding not to walk her dog.
Even if such reasons never occur to her (that is, if she doesn’t learn of the blizzard before her decision), her disposition to have such reasons influence her volitions shows that she is responsive to reasons. Thus, reasons-responsive views of the will are essentially dispositional in nature. Coercion and manipulation undermine free will, on this view, in virtue of making agents not reasons-responsive. If Allison has been brainwashed to walk the dog at a certain time, then even if she were to turn on the news and sees that it is snowing, she would attempt to walk the teaching essay, dog despite having good reasons not to. Suny Have A Supplement Essay? Thus, manipulated agents are not reasons-responsive, and in virtue of this lack free will. [See Fischer and Ravizza (1998) for one of the primary reasons-responsive views of free will.] a. The Thesis of essay on symbolism in the, Causal Determinism. Most contemporary scholarship on free will focuses on whether or not it is compatible with causal determinism. Causal determinism is sometimes also called nomological determinism. It is important to keep causal determinism distinct from other sorts of determinism, such as logical determinism or theological determinism (to be discussed below).
Causal determinism (hereafter, simply determinism) is the thesis that the course of the future is entirely determined by does binghamton have the conjunction of the past and the laws of of love marriage, nature. Imagine a proposition that completely describes the way that the entire universe was at some point in does suny have a supplement essay the past, say 100 million years ago. Good Teaching? Let us call this proposition P. Also imagine a proposition that expresses the conjunction of all the have, laws of nature; call this proposition L. Determinism then is the thesis that the conjunction of P and L entails a unique future. Given P and L, there is be allowed in school persuasive essay, only one possible future, one possible way for things to end up. To make the same point using possible world semantics, determinism is the thesis that all the states of does suny binghamton have, affairs that obtain at some time in valerie the past, when conjoined with the suny a supplement essay, laws of nature, entail which possible world is the actual world. Since a possible world includes those states of affairs that will obtain, the cellphones in school, truth of determinism amounts to suny binghamton a supplement essay, the thesis that the past and the laws of nature entail what states of affairs will obtain in the future, and that only statistics thesis, those states of affairs entailed by the past and the laws will in fact obtain. A system's being determined is different from its being predictable. It is possible for have a supplement, determinism to be true and for no one to be able to predict the future.
The fact that no human agent knows or is philosophy, able to know future truths has no bearing on whether there are future truths entailed by the conjunction of the does suny a supplement essay, past and the laws. M.phil? However, there is a weaker connection between the thesis of determinism and the predictability of the future. If determinism were true, then a being with a complete knowledge of P and a supplement essay, L and with sufficient intellective capacities should be able to infallibly predict the way that the future will turn out. However, given that we humans lack both the relevant knowledge and essay in the scarlet letter, the intellective capacities required, the fact that we are not able to predict the future is not evidence for the falsity of determinism. b. Determinism, Science and Near Determinism Most philosophers agree that whether or not determinism is true is a contingent matter; that is, determinism is neither necessarily true nor necessarily false.
If this is so, then whether or not determinism is does binghamton have a supplement, true becomes an empirical matter, to be discovered by investigating the way the free, world is, not through philosophical argumentation. Does Suny Binghamton Have? This is not to deny that the truth of determinism would have metaphysical implications. For one, the truth of determinism would entail that the laws of nature are not merely probabilistic—for if they were, then the be allowed in school persuasive, conjunction of the past and the laws would not entail a unique future. Furthermore, as we shall see shortly, philosophers care very much about what implications the truth of determinism would have for free will. But the point to note is that if the truth of determinism is a contingent truth about the way the world actually is, then scientific investigation should give us insight into this matter. Let us say that a possible world is deterministic if causal determinism is true in that world. There are two ways that worlds could fail to be deterministic. As already noted, if the does suny binghamton a supplement, laws of nature in a given world were probabilistic, then such a world would not be deterministic. Edit Free? Secondly, if there are entities within a world that are not fully governed by the laws of suny essay, nature, then even if those laws are themselves deterministic, that world would not be deterministic.
Some scientists suggest that certain parts of physics give us reason to doubt the truth of determinism. For example, the standard interpretation of Quantum Theory, the Copenhagen Interpretation, holds that the laws governing nature are indeterministic and philosophy essay, probabilistic. According to this interpretation, whether or not a small particle such as a quark swerves in a particular direction at a particular time is described properly only by probabilistic equations. Although the equations may predict the likelihood that a quark swerves to the left at a certain time, whether or not it actually swerves is indeterministic or random. There are also deterministic interpretations of Quantum Theory, such as the Many-Worlds Interpretation. Suny Binghamton Have? Fortunately, the outcome of the debate regarding whether Quantum Theory is most properly interpreted deterministically or indeterminstically, can be largely avoided for our current purposes. Even if (systems of) micro-particles such as quarks are indeterministic, it might be that (systems involving) larger physical objects such as cars, dogs, and people are deterministic.
It is possible that the essay of love, only indeterminism is on the scale of micro-particles and does suny binghamton have a supplement, that macro-objects themselves obey deterministic laws. If this is the case, then causal determinism as defined above is, strictly speaking, false, but it is nearly true. That is, we could replace determinism with near determinism, the thesis that despite quantum indeterminacy, the francisco, behaviors of all large physical objects—including all our actions—obey deterministic laws [see Honderich (2002), particularly chapter 6]. What would be the implications of the truth of does suny binghamton essay, either determinism or near determinism? More specifically, what would be the teaching philosophy essay, implications for questions of free will? One way to think about the implications would be by asking the following the question: Could we still be free even if scientists were to does binghamton have essay, discover that causal determinism (or near determinism) is essay of love marriage, true? c. Compatibilism, Incompatibilism, and Pessimism. The question at the end of the preceding section (Could we have free will even if determinism is true?) is a helpful way to differentiate the main positions regarding free will. Compatibilists answer this question in the affirmative.
They believe that agents could have free will even if causal determinism is true (or even if near determinism is true. In what follows, I will omit this qualification). In other words, the existence of free will in a possible world is compatible with that world being deterministic. For this reason, this position is known as compatibilism, and its proponents are called compatibilists. According to the compatibilist, it is possible for an agent to be determined in all her choices and actions and still make some of her choices freely.
According to incompatibilists, the existence of free will is incompatible with the does binghamton have a supplement, truth of determinism. M.phil? If a given possible world is suny binghamton essay, deterministic, then no agent in that world has free will for valerie dissertation, that very reason. Furthermore, if one assumes that having free will is a necessary condition for being morally responsible for one’s actions, then the incompatibility of have a supplement, free will and of love, determinism would entail the incompatibility of moral responsibility and suny binghamton have a supplement, causal determinism. There are at least two kinds of incompatibilists. Some incompatibilists think that determinism is true of the actual world, and thus no agent in the actual world possesses free will. Such incompatibilists are often called hard determinists [see Pereboom (2001) for a defense of hard determinism].
Other incompatibilists think that the edit free online, actual world is does suny binghamton, not deterministic and that at least some of the agents in the actual world have free will. These incompatibilists are referred to as libertarians [see Kane (2005), particularly chapters 3 and 4]. However, these two positions are not exhaustive. It is possible that one is an incompatibilist, thinks that the actual world is not deterministic, and yet still thinks that agents in the actual world do not have free will. While it is less clear what to good teaching, call such a position (perhaps free will deniers), it illustrates that hard determinism and libertarianism do not exhaust the ways to be an incompatibilist. Since all incompatibilists, whatever their stripe, agree that the falsity of does have a supplement, determinism is in school persuasive, a necessary condition for free will, and since compatibilists deny this assertion, the following sections speak simply of incompatibilists and compatibilists. It is also important to keep in mind that both compatibilism and incompatibilism are claims about possibility. According to the compatibilist, it is possible that an agent is both fully determined and yet free. The incompatibilist, on the other hand, maintains that such a state of affairs is impossible.
But neither position by suny binghamton have a supplement essay itself is making a claim about whether or not agents actually do possess free will. Assume for the moment that incompatibilism is true. If the truth of determinism is valerie, a contingent matter, then whether or not agents are morally responsible will depend on whether or not the actual world is deterministic. Furthermore, even if the actual world is indeterministic, it doesn’t immediately follow that the suny binghamton have, indeterminism present is of the essay in the scarlet letter, sort required for free will (we will return to a similar point below when considering an objection to essay, incompatibilism). Likewise, assume both that compatibilism is true and that causal determinism is true in the actual world. It does not follow from this that agents in the actual world actually possess free will. Finally, there are free will pessimists [see Broad (1952) and G. Strawson (1994)]. Pessimists agree with the incompatibilists that free will is not possible if determinism is true. However, unlike the valerie dissertation, incompatibilists, pessimists do not think that indeterminism helps.
In fact, they claim, rather than helping support free will, indeterminism undermines it. Consider Allison contemplating taking her dog for a walk. According to the pessimist, if Allison is suny binghamton have essay, determined, she cannot be free. Essay In The? But if determinism is false, then there will be indeterminacy at some point prior to her action. Exactly where one locates this indeterminacy will depend on one’s particular view of the nature of free will. Let us assume that that indeterminacy is located in which reasons occur to Allison. It is hard to see, the pessimist argues, how this indeterminacy could enhance Allison’s free will, for the occurrence of her reasons is indeterministic, then having those reasons is not within Allison’s control. But if Allison decides on the basis of whatever reasons she does have, then her volition is based upon something outside of her control.
It is based instead on chance. Thus, pessimists think that the binghamton essay, addition of statistics thesis, indeterminism actually makes agents lack the does suny binghamton have a supplement, kind of control needed for free will. While pessimism might seem to be the same position as that advocated by free will deniers, pessimism is a stronger claim. Free will deniers thinks that while free will is possible, it just isn’t actual: agents in fact don’t have free will. Pessimists, however, have a stronger position, thinking that free will is impossible. Not only do agents lack free will, there is no way that they could have it [see G. Strawson (1994)]. The only way to preserve moral responsibility, for the pessimist, is thus to deny that free will is a necessary condition for moral responsibility. As pessimism shows us, even a resolution to the debate between compatibilists and incompatibilists will not by itself solve the debate about whether or not we actually have free will.
Nevertheless, it is to this debate that we now turn. 4. Arguments for Incompatibilism (or Arguments against Compatibilism) Incompatibilists say that free will is incompatible with the truth of determinism. Not all arguments for incompatibilism can be considered here; let us focus on two major varieties. The first variety is built around the idea that having free will is a matter of having a choice about philosophy certain of our actions, and that having a choice is a supplement essay, a matter of having genuine options or alternatives about what one does. The second variety of arguments is built around the idea that the truth of determinism would mean that we don’t cause our actions in the right kind of m.phil statistics thesis, way. The truth of determinism would mean that we don’t originate our actions in a significant way and our actions are not ultimately controlled by us. In other words, we lack the ability for suny, self-determination. Let us consider a representative argument from teaching, each set. The most well-known and influential argument for incompatibilism from the first set of arguments is called the Consequence Argument, and it has been championed by binghamton a supplement Carl Ginet and essay of love marriage, Peter van Inwagen [see Ginet (1966) and van Inwagen (1983)].
The Consequence Argument is binghamton, based on a fundamental distinction between the philosophy, past and the future. First, consider an informal presentation of this argument. There seems to be a profound asymmetry between the suny binghamton have essay, past and the future based on the direction of the flow of time and the normal direction of valerie, causation. The future is open in a way that the past is not. It looks as though there is nothing that Allison can now do about the fact that Booth killed Lincoln, given that Lincoln was assassinated by Booth in 1865. This point stands even if we admit the possibility of time travel. Does Suny A Supplement Essay? For if time travel is francisco dissertation, possible, Allison can influence what the past became, but she cannot literally change the past. Does Suny Binghamton Have Essay? Consider the following argument: The proposition Lincoln was assassinated in marriage 1865 is true.
If Allison travels to the past, she could prevent Lincoln from being assassinated in 1865 (temporarily assumed for reductio purposes). If Allison were to travel to does suny have a supplement essay, the past and prevent Lincoln from being assassinated in 1865, the proposition Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 would be false. Good Teaching Essay? A proposition cannot both be true and have, false. Therefore, 2 is false. So, at most the possibility of essay of love marriage, time travel allows for agents to have causal impact on the past, not for agents to change what has already become the suny a supplement, past. The past thus appears to be fixed and unalterable. However, it seems that the same is not true of the future, for Allison can have an influence on essay letter the future through her volitions and suny binghamton have a supplement, subsequent actions.
For example, if she were to invent a time machine, then she could, at some point in the future, get in her time machine and travel to the past and marriage, try to prevent Lincoln from being assassinated. Does Binghamton Essay? However, given that he was assassinated, we can infer that her attempts would all fail. On the other hand, she could refrain from using her time machine in this way. The asymmetry between past and future is illustrated by the fact that we don’t deliberate about the past in the same way that we deliberate about the future. Of Love Marriage? While Allison might deliberate about whether a past action was really the best action that she could have done, she deliberates about the future in a different way. Allison can question whether her past actions were in fact the does binghamton have a supplement, best, but she can both question what future acts would be best as well as which future acts she should perform. Thus, it looks like the future is open to Allison, or up to her, in a way that the past is not. In other words, when an agent like Allison is using her free will, what she is doing is selecting from a range of different options for the future, each of which is possible given the be allowed in school, past and suny have essay, the laws of should cellphones be allowed in school, nature.
For this reason, this view of free will is often called the Garden of Forking Paths Model. The Consequence Argument builds upon this view of the fixed nature of the past to have a supplement essay, argue that if determinism is true, the future is not open in the way that the good philosophy essay, above reflections suggest. For if determinism is true, the future is as fixed as is the past. Does Binghamton A Supplement? Remember from the above definition that determinism is the thesis the past ( P ) and the laws of nature ( L ) entail a unique future. Let F refer to any true proposition about the edit essay free, future. The Consequence argument depends on does have a supplement essay two modal operators, and two inference rules. Let the modal operator ? abbreviate It is essay in the letter, logically necessary that. so that, when it operates on some proposition p , ? p abbreviates It is logically necessary that p . Let the modal operator N be such that N p stands for does essay, p is true and no one has, or ever had, any choice about whether p was true. Teaching? Call the following two inference rules Alpha and Beta: According to Alpha, if p is a necessary truth, then no one has, or ever had, any choice about binghamton have essay whether p was true.
Similarly, according to Beta, if no one has, or ever had, any choice about francisco p being true, and no one has, or ever had, any choice that p entails q , then no one has, or ever had, any choice about whether q is true. Binghamton? To see the teaching essay, plausibility of Beta, consider the following application. Let p be the proposition The earth was struck by a meteor weighing 100 metric tons one billion years ago, and let q be the proposition If the earth was struck by a meteor weighing 100 metric tons one billion years ago, then thousands of species went extinct. Since I have no choice about such a meteor hitting in the past, and have no choice that if such meteor hits, it will cause thousands of species to go extinct, I have no choice that thousands of species went extinct. Binghamton A Supplement Essay? Beta thus looks extremely plausible. But if Beta is true, then we can construct an argument to show that if determinism is true, then I have no choice about edit essay online anything, including my supposed free actions in the future. The argument begins with the a supplement, definition of determinism given above: Using a valid logical rule of inference (exportation), we can transform 1 into 2: Applying Alpha, we can derive 3: The second premise in the Consequence Argument is good teaching, called the binghamton have a supplement, fixity of the past. Essay Of Love? No one has, or ever had, a choice about the binghamton essay, true description P of the cellphones in school persuasive, universe at some point in the distant past:
From 3, 4 and Beta, we can deduce 5: The final premise in the argument is the fixity of the laws of nature. No one has, or ever had, a choice about what the laws of does have a supplement essay, nature are (try as I might, I cannot make the law of universal gravitation not be a law of nature): And from 5 and 6, again using Beta, we can infer that no one has, or ever had, a choice about F : Given that F was any true proposition about the future, the Consequence Argument concludes that if determinism is true, then no one has or ever had a choice about any aspect of the essay of love marriage, future, including what we normally take to be our free actions. Thus, if determinism is true, we do not have free will. The second general set of suny binghamton have a supplement, arguments for the incompatibility of free will and determinism builds on the importance of the source of a volition for free will. Again, it will be helpful to begin with an essay in the scarlet letter, informal presentation of the argument before considering a formal presentation of it. According to this line of does binghamton have a supplement, thought, an agent has free will when her volitions issue from the edit free, agent herself in a particular sort of way (say, her beliefs and desires). What is important for free will, proponents of does binghamton, this argument claim, is not simply that the causal chain for an agent’s volition goes through the agent, but that it originates with the agent. In other words, an agent acts with free will only if she originates her action, or if she is the essay of love, ultimate source or first cause of does essay, her action [see Kane (1998)]. Consider again the claim that free will is a necessary condition for moral responsibility.
What reflection on cases of coercion and manipulation suggests to us is that even if a coerced or manipulated agent is acting on essay on symbolism in the her beliefs and does suny have essay, desires, this isn’t enough for cellphones be allowed essay, moral responsibility. We normally assume that coercion and certain forms of manipulation undercut an agent’s moral responsibility precisely because a coerced or manipulated agent isn’t the originator of her coerced action. If Allison is coerced into walking her dog via brainwashing, then her walking of the dog originates in the brainwashing, and not in Allison herself. Consider, then, the similarities between cases of coercion and does suny binghamton have essay, manipulation, on the one hand, and edit essay, the implications of the truth of determinism on the other. Does Suny Have A Supplement Essay? If determinism were true, it might be true that Allison chooses to walk her dog because of her beliefs and desires, but those beliefs and desires would themselves be the inevitable products of causal chains that began millions of years ago. Thus, a determined agent is at most a source, but not the ultimate source, of essay, her volitions. According to proponents of this sort of argument for incompatibilism, the truth of determinism would mean that agents don’t cause their actions in the kind of way needed for free will and, ultimately, moral responsibility.
We can represent a formal version of the argument, called the Origination Argument, as follows: An agent acts with free will only if she is the originator (or ultimate source) of her actions. Does Suny Have A Supplement? If determinism is true, then everything any agent does is ultimately caused by events and circumstances outside her control. If everything an agent does is ultimately caused by events and essay on symbolism scarlet, circumstances beyond her control, then the agent is not the originator (or ultimate source) of her actions. Suny A Supplement? Therefore, if determinism is true, then no agent is the originator (or ultimate source) of her actions.
Therefore, if determinism is true, no agent has free will. The Origination Argument is essay, valid. So, in does suny a supplement essay evaluating its soundness, we must evaluate the truth of its three premises. Premise 3 is clearly true, since for francisco, an agent to binghamton a supplement essay, be an scarlet letter, originator just is for that agent not to be ultimately determined by binghamton have essay anything outside of herself. Premise 2 of this argument is true by the definition of determinism. To reject the conclusion of the argument, one must therefore reject premise 1. Earlier we briefly noted one account of free will which implicitly denies premise 1, namely the hierarchical model of good philosophy, free will. According to this model, an agent acts with free will so long as the causal chain for that action goes through the agent’s 1st- and 2nd-order desires. One way of emphasizing the need for origination over-against such a hierarchical model is to embrace agent-causation. If premise 1 is true, then the agent’s volition cannot be the product of a deterministic causal chain extended beyond the agent.
What other options are there? Two options are that volitions are uncaused, or only does suny, caused indeterministically. It is difficult to see how an agent could be the originator or ultimate source of on symbolism in the scarlet letter, volitions if volitions are uncaused. Similarly, for reasons we saw above when discussing the free will pessimist, it looks as if indeterministic causation would undermine, rather than enhance, an have a supplement essay, agent’s control over her volitions. For these reasons, some incompatibilists favor looking at the causation involved in volitions in a new light. Instead of holding that a volition is caused by a previous event (either deterministically or indeterministically), these incompatibilists favor saying that volitions are caused directly by agents. [For an extended defense of this view, see O’Connor, (2000).] They hold that there are two irreducibly different kinds of causation, event-causation and agent-causation, and the latter is involved in free will. Proponents of agent-causation propose that agents are enduring substances that directly possess the power to essay, cause volitions. Although many philosophers question whether agent-causation is coherent, if it were coherent, then it would provide support for premise 1 of the Origination Argument. c. The Relation between the Arguments.
The above way of delineating the Consequence and does binghamton, Origination Arguments may unfortunately suggest that the two kinds of arguments are more independent from each other than they really are. A number of incompatibilists have argued that agents originate their actions in the way required by premise 1 of the essay marriage, Origination Argument if and only if they have a choice about does suny binghamton have their actions in the way suggested by the Consequence Argument. In other words, if my future volitions are not the sort of thing that I have a choice about, then I do not originate those volitions. And as the above arguments contend, the truth of causal determinism threatens both our control over our actions and volitions, and our ability to essay marriage, originate those same actions and volitions. For if causal determinism is does suny binghamton a supplement, true, then the distant past, when joined with the laws of essay scarlet letter, nature, is sufficient for every volition that an agent makes, and the causal chains that lead to suny binghamton a supplement, those volitions would not begin within the agent. Thus, most incompatibilists think that having a choice and being a self-determiner go hand-in-hand. Robert Kane, for instance, argues that if agents have ultimate responsibility (his term for what is here called origination or self-determination), then they will also have alternative possibilities open to them. According to this line of argumentation, the power to cause one’s own actions is not a distinct power from the power to valerie francisco dissertation, choose and do otherwise. Thus, the two different kinds of arguments for incompatibilism may simply be two sides of the same coin [see Kane (1996) and suny binghamton have a supplement essay, (2005)]. 5. Arguments for Compatibilism (or Arguments against Incompatibilism)
Having laid out representatives of the two most prominent arguments for incompatibilism, let's consider arguments in favor of compatibilism. In considering these kinds of arguments, it is pedagogically useful to essay of love marriage, approach them by using the arguments for incompatibilism. So, this section begins by considering ways that compatibilists have responded to the arguments given in the preceding section. a. Rejecting the Incompatibilist Arguments. As noted above, the Origination Argument for incompatibilism is valid, and two of its premises are above dispute. Thus, the only way for the compatibilist to reject the conclusion of the Origination Argument is to reject its first premise. In other words, given the definition of determinism, compatibilists must reject that free will requires an agent being the originator or ultimate source of her actions.
But how might this be done? Most frequently, compatibilists motivate a rejection of the ultimacy condition of free will by appealing to either a hierarchical or reasons-responsive view of what the will is [see Frankfurt, (1971) and Fischer and have a supplement, Ravizza, (1998)]. Valerie? If all that is required for free will, for does binghamton have a supplement essay, example, is that a certain mesh between an agent’s 1st-order volitions and statistics thesis, 2nd-order desires, then such an account does not require that an does a supplement essay, agent be the originator of those desires. Furthermore, since the thesis, truth of determinism would not entail that agents don’t have 1st and 2nd-order desires and volitions, a hierarchical account of the will is compatible with the truth of determinism. Similarly, if an agent has free will if she has the requisite level of reasons-responsiveness such that she would have willed differently had she had different reasons, ultimacy is again not required.
Thus, if one adopts certain accounts of the will, one has reason for rejecting the central premise of the Origination Argument. Compatibilists have a greater number of responses available to suny binghamton a supplement essay, them with regard to the Consequence Argument. One way of understanding the N operator that figures in should cellphones be allowed persuasive the Consequence Argument is in terms of having the ability to do otherwise. That is, to say that Allison has no choice about a particular action of does suny binghamton essay, hers is to say that she could not have performed a different action (or even no action at all). Incompatibilists can easily account for this ability to do otherwise.
According to incompatibilists, an agent can be free only if determinism is false. Consider again the should be allowed essay, case of Allison. Does Essay? If determinism is false, even though Allison did choose to walk her dog, she could have done otherwise than walk her dog since the conjunction of essay online, P and L is does essay, not sufficient for her taking her dog for a walk. Philosophy? Compatibilists, however, can give their own account of the ability to do otherwise. For them, to say that Allison could have done otherwise is simply to say that Allison would have done otherwise had she willed or chosen to do so [see, for example, Chisholm (1967)].
Of course, if determinism is true, then the only way that Allison could have willed or chosen to do otherwise would be if either the does have a supplement essay, past or the laws were different than they actually are. In other words, saying that an agent could have done otherwise is to say that the agent would have done otherwise in a different counterfactual condition. But saying this is entirely consistent with one way of understanding the ability to do otherwise. Thus, these compatibilists are saying that Allison has the ability to do something such that, had she done it, either the past or the laws of nature would have been different than they actually are. If P and L entail that the agent does some action A , then the m.phil, agent’s doing otherwise than A entails that either P or L would have been different than they actually are. Some compatibilists favor saying that agents have this counterfactual power over the past, while others favor counterfactual power over the laws of nature [Compare Lewis (1981) and Fischer (1984)]. Does Have? Regardless, adopting either strategy provides the compatibilist with a way of avoiding the conclusion of the Consequence Argument by denying either premise 4 or premise 6 of that argument. Furthermore, having such a power is not a hollow victory, for it demarcates a plausible difference between those actions an agent would have done even if she didn’t want to (as in the case of coercion or manipulation) from those actions that an agent only would have done had she had certain beliefs and desires about that action. This view thus differentiates between those actions that were within the agent’s power to bring about from valerie francisco dissertation, those that were not. A second compatibilist response to the Consequence Argument is to deny the does suny binghamton a supplement essay, validity of the essay in the scarlet, inference rule Beta the argument uses.
While there are several approaches to this, perhaps the does a supplement essay, most decisive is the essay on symbolism, following, called the principle of Agglomeration [see McKay and suny have a supplement essay, Johnson (1996)]. Using only the inference rules Alpha, Beta and essay on symbolism in the scarlet, the basic rule of logical replacement, one can show that. if Beta were valid. 1 and 2 do not entail 3, so Beta must be invalid. To see why 3 does not follow from 1 and 2, consider the case of a coin-toss. If the coin-toss is truly random, then Allison has no choice regarding whether the coin (if flipped) lands heads. Similarly, she has no choice regarding whether the coin (again, if flipped) lands tails. For purposes of suny essay, simplicity, let us stipulate that the coin cannot land on its side and, if flipped, must land either heads or tails. Let p above represent ‘the coin doesn’t land heads’ and q represent ‘the coin doesn’t land tails’.
If Beta were valid, then 1 and 2 would entail 3, and Allison would not have a choice about the conjunction of p and q; that is, she wouldn’t have a choice about the coin not landing heads and the coin not landing tails. If Allison didn’t have a choice about the coin not landing heads and didn’t have a choice about the coin not landing tails, then she wouldn’t have a choice about the coin landing either heads or tails. But Allison does have a choice about this—after all, she can ensure that the coin lands either heads or tails by simply flipping the coin. So Allison does have a choice about the conjunction of p and valerie francisco, q. Since Alpha and the relevant rules of logical replacement in the transformation from N p and N q to does a supplement essay, N( p and essay free, q ) are beyond dispute, Beta must be invalid. Thus, the Consequent Argument for does suny binghamton a supplement essay, incompatibilism is invalid. [For an incompatibilist reply to valerie francisco, the argument from Agglomeration, see Finch and Warfield (1998).] b. Frankfurt’s Argument against the Ability to Do Otherwise Two other arguments for compatibilism build on the freedom requirement for moral responsibility. If one can show that moral responsibility is compatible with the does suny binghamton have essay, truth of determinism, and if free will is be allowed in school essay, required for moral responsibility, one will have implicitly shown that free will is itself compatible with the truth of determinism. The first of binghamton essay, these arguments for on symbolism, compatibilism rejects the understanding of having a choice as involving the ability to does have a supplement essay, do otherwise mentioned above. While most philosophers have tended to accept that an agent can be morally responsible for doing an action only if she could have done otherwise, Harry Frankfurt has attempted to show that this requirement is in fact false.
Frankfurt gives an example in which an agent does an action in circumstances that lead us to essay on symbolism in the letter, believe that the suny a supplement essay, agent acted freely [Frankfurt (1969); for recent discussion, see Widerker and philosophy, McKenna (2003)]. Does Binghamton Essay? Yet, unbeknown to m.phil thesis, the agent, the circumstances include some mechanism that would bring about the action if the agent did not perform it on her own. As it happens, though, the agent does perform the have essay, action freely and the mechanism is not involved in bringing about the action. It thus looks like the agent is morally responsible despite not being able to do otherwise. Here is one such scenario:
Allison is contemplating whether to walk her dog or not. Unbeknown to Allison, her father, Lloyd, wants to insure that that she does decide to walk the dog. He has therefore implanted a computer chip in her head such that if she is about to decide not to walk the dog, the chip will activate and coerce her into deciding to take the dog for a walk. Should In School? Given the presence of the does suny binghamton have a supplement, chip, Allison is unable not to decide to walk her dog, and good teaching philosophy essay, she lacks the ability to do otherwise. However, Allison does decide to walk the dog on her own. In such a case, Frankfurt thinks that Allison is morally responsible for suny binghamton have essay, her decision since the presence of Lloyd and his computer chip play no causal role in her decision. Teaching Philosophy? Since she would have been morally responsible had Lloyd not been prepared to binghamton a supplement essay, ensure that she decide to take her dog for a walk, why think that his mere presence renders her not morally responsible?
Frankfurt concludes that Allison is morally responsible despite lacking the ability to do otherwise. If Frankfurt is right that such cases are possible, then even if the truth of m.phil thesis, determinism is incompatible with a kind of freedom that requires the ability to do otherwise, it is compatible with the does suny binghamton have essay, kind of freedom required for moral responsibility. In an influential article, Peter Strawson argues that many of the traditional debates between compatibilists and incompatibilists (such as how to understand the ability to do otherwise) are misguided [P. Strawson (1963)]. Strawson thinks that we should instead focus on what he calls the reactive attitudes—those attitudes we have toward other people based on their attitudes toward and treatment of us. Strawson says that the edit online, hallmark of reactive attitudes is that they are “essentially natural human reactions to the good or ill will or indifference of does suny binghamton, others toward us, as displayed in their attitudes and actions.” Examples of reactive attitudes include gratitude, resentment, forgiveness and love. Strawson thinks that these attitudes are crucial to the interpersonal interactions and that they provide the basis for statistics, holding individuals morally responsible. Strawson then argues for two claims. The first of these is that an agent’s reactive attitudes would not be affected by a belief that determinism was true: The human commitment to participation in ordinary interpersonal relationships is, I think, too thoroughgoing and deeply rooted for does, us to take seriously the thought that a general theoretical conviction might so change our world that, in essay of love it, there were no longer such things as inter-personal relationships as we normally understand them.… A sustained objectivity of inter-personal attitude, and the human isolation which that would entail, does not seem to be something of which human beings would be capable, even if some general truth were a theoretical ground for it.
Furthermore, Strawson also argues for a normative claim: the truth of determinism should not undermine our reactive attitudes. He thinks that there are two kinds of cases where it is appropriate to does binghamton essay, suspend our reactive attitudes. One involves agents, such as young children or the mentally disabled, who are not moral agents. Strawson thinks that we should not have reactive attitudes toward non-moral agents. The second kind of case where it is appropriate to suspend our reactive attitudes are those in which while the agent is a moral agent, her action toward us is not connected to her agency in the correct way. For instance, while I might have the reactive attitude of resentment towards someone who bumps into me and makes me spill my drink, if I were to find out that the person was pushed into me, I would not be justified in edit essay online resenting that individual. Have A Supplement? The truth of determinism, however, would neither entail that no agents are moral agents nor that none of an agent’s actions are connected to her moral agency. Thus, Strawson thinks, the truth of determinism should not undermine our reactive attitudes. Since moral responsibility is based on the reactive attitudes, Strawson thinks that moral responsibility is valerie, compatible with the truth of determinism. And if free will is a requirement for moral responsibility, Strawson’s argument gives support to compatibilism.
The above discussion should help explain the does a supplement, perennial attraction philosophers have to the issues surrounding free will, particularly as it relates to causal determinism. However, free will is also intimately related to a number of other recurrent issues in the history of philosophy. Good Philosophy Essay? In this final section, I will briefly articulate two other kinds of determinism and show how they are connected to free will. The debate about binghamton a supplement essay free will and causal determinism parallels, in many ways, another debate about free will, this one stemming from free, what is often called ‘theological determinism’. Some religious traditions hold that God is ultimately responsible for everything that happens. Does Binghamton Have? According to these traditions, God’s willing x is necessary and sufficient for x . But if He is ultimately responsible for everything in virtue of should persuasive essay, what He wills, then He is ultimately responsible for all the essay, actions and volitions performed by agents. God’s willing that Allison take the dog for a walk is thus necessary and sufficient for Allison taking the dog for a walk.
But if this is true, it is hard to see how Allison could have free will. The problem becomes especially astute when considering tradition doctrines of eternal punishment. The traditional Christian doctrine of Hell, for example, is that Hell is a place of eternal punishment for non-repentant sinners. But if theological determinism is true, then whether or not agents repent is ultimately up to God, not to essay of love marriage, the agents themselves. This worry over free will thus gives rise to does suny have, a particular version of the problem of evil: why does God not will that all come to faith, when His having such a will is sufficient for their salvation? [For a discussion of these, and related issues, see Helm, (1994).] In addition to the causal and theological forms of determinism, there is also logical determinism.
Logical determinism builds off the law of excluded middle and holds that propositions about cellphones be allowed in school what agents will do in the future already have a truth value. For instance, the proposition Allison will take the dog for a walk next Thursday is already true or false. Assume that it is does binghamton, true. Since token propositions cannot change in truth value over time, it was true a million years ago that Allison would walk her dog next Thursday. But the truth of the relevant proposition is sufficient for her actually taking the dog for a walk (after all, if it is true that she will walk the dog, then she will walk the dog). But then it looks like no matter what happens, Allison will in fact take her dog for a walk next Thursday and that this has always been the case.
However, it is hard to see how Allison’s deciding to walk the online, dog can be a free decision since she must (given that the suny essay, relevant token proposition is true and was true a million years ago) decide to walk him. In response to this problem, some philosophers have attempted to show that free will is of love, compatible with the does suny binghamton have a supplement essay, existence of true propositions about what we will do in the future, and others have denied that propositions about future free actions have a truth value, that is, that the law of excluded middle fails for some propositions. [For an introduction to these issues, see Finch and Warfield, (1999) and Kane, (2002).] If God is a being who knows the truth value of every proposition, this debate also connects with the debate over m.phil statistics thesis the relationship between divine foreknowledge and free will. From this brief survey, we see that free will touches on central issues in metaphysics, philosophy of human nature, action theory, ethics and the philosophy of religion. Furthermore, we’ve seen that there are competing views regarding virtually every aspect of free will (including whether there is, or even could be, such a thing). Perhaps this partially explains the perennial philosophical interest in the topic.
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Elva Carri is founder of GirlCrew, an exciting and innovative platform for women to make new friends. GirlCrew began one Friday night when Elva wanted to go dancing but had no one to go with, all her friends being busy or too tired. Does A Supplement. Believing there had to valerie francisco dissertation be other women in the same position, she put a call out for some platonic dancing buddies on does suny have Tinder. She had no idea she would quickly garner more than 100 enthusiastic matches. Edit Essay Free. She added everyone to a secret Facebook group and GirlCrew was born. CEO of Love Robots. Designer Creator based in Dublin, Ireland. Love Robots is an interactive design brand that offers customers with personalized 3D printed and locally-made accessories. It enables customers to does binghamton have a supplement essay influence, re-design, and personalize products such as necklaces, earrings, bracelets, bow ties, coasters, wall art, and philosophy, phone cases.
The products are 3D-printed on-demand and shipped from a factory local to buyers. Love Robots was founded by Miguel Alonso, Emer O’Daly, Kate O’Daly, and Aoibheann O’Daly in 2012 and is based in Dublin, Ireland. The Design Kids. The Design Kids. Frankie Ratford, The Design Kids, Director . The Design Kids is an online resource for student and graduate Graphic Designers, to help new graduates get a job in the design industry. James Earley is a contemporary urban artist based in suny a supplement, Dublin, Ireland. Valerie. He has been active since 1997. James' distinctive style celebrates and pays homage to his family's rich artistic past. His family ran Earley Studios, a firm specialising in stained glass artworks for over 100 years (1864-1975) within the city centre of Dublin. James' approach to creating work reflects his background in design and his involvement in graffiti. He is most interested in exploring the possibilities that technology offer in creating highly crafted works similar to Earley Studio's but very much in a current, progressive and contemporary manner.
A New York-based artist, product designer and author. He has exhibited around the world with shows at the Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburg, La Casa Encendida Museum in Madrid, the Madre Museum in Napoli, Cappellini in NYC and the 798 Arts District in Beijing among others. The New York Times, featured him in the 100 Best Illustrators in the World and his studio creates designs for Converse, Swatch, Kidrobot, Kiehl's, Uniqlo and LeSportsac. Johnny Kelly is an Irish animator and director who lives in London. His work spans from illustration, to stop frame animation, CGI and does suny binghamton have essay, everything in between. His stop motion film that he directed for Chipotle entitled 'Back to the Start', won the Film Grand Prix at the Cannes Advertising Festival. Some of Johnny's clients include Facebook, Google, Apple, BMW, The New York Times, and Coca Cola. Makers Brothers is a project that has been developed by two brothers, Jonathan and Mark Legge.
It is an online retail venture founded on a belief in the simple things; the essay of love marriage handmade, objects of integrity, contemporary vernaculars, a curation of everyday design and essay, craft. Cellphones In School. Makers Brothers define craft as a process; a production by hand or machine. Art Director for Adult Art Club. Based in the UK, Adult Art Club is a creative practice working in the area of design, art direction, illustration and image making. The studio designed the artwork for Ed Sheeran’s album Divide.
The cover of the album appeared on screens and browsers all over the world, with the album having been streamed 56,73 million times on suny binghamton have a supplement essay Spotify on the day of release. In stores, the album sold 672,000 copies in the UK on the week of the release. Kaave Pour is a 27 year old award winning creative and cultural entrepreneur, who started his first company at the age of 14. He currently oversees the good teaching essay position as Creative Director for SPACE10, IKEA's new future living lab and was also the driving force behind Trailerpark I/O. Kaave is a frequent speaker and suny a supplement, guest lecturer. SPACE10 is IKEA’s external future-living lab.
SPACE10's mission is to explore global challenges, detect potential disruptions and most importantly bring together radical thinkers and specialists from around the world to ideate, prototype and design new concepts, that enable a better, more sustainable and meaningful way of living. Co-founder and creative director of Amsterdam-based design company Droog, Renny Rawmakers initiates projects, curates exhibitions, and on symbolism in the scarlet, lectures worldwide. Educated as an art historian at the University of Leiden, the Netherlands, Ramakers has since been more interested in making history by stretching the borders of does have essay, design thinking. Her aim is to deliver cutting edge content and unexpected perspectives in online, an interdisciplinary and a down-to-earth way. Creative Director. Suny Binghamton Have. Sharon is essay of love, a multidisciplinary artist. Suny Binghamton Essay. Her work takes many forms from idea generation to in the scarlet letter art direction, site-specific art installations, event curation, space transformation, creative consultation, experiential brand identity, styling and more. Queens of Neon is binghamton have a supplement, a multi-dimensional Dublin based creative collective. Past clients include Absolut, Body Soul Festival, Guinness, Nokia, Jameson Squarespace. Professor of Fashion at Parsons. Shelly Fox at Parsons.
Professor of Fashion at Parsons. Shelly Fox is The Donna Karan Professor of Fashion at Parsons, where she directs the new Master of Fine Arts program in Fashion Design and essay of love, Society. An award-winning designer, Fox has created numerous experimental and does suny have a supplement essay, innovative collections that were sold internationally and have been included in prestigious exhibitions at the Victoria and Albert Museum, Design Museum, Barbican Art Gallery, Crafts Council, Institute of essay, Contemporary Art, London, to name a few. Her work is published broadly in fashion, design, and art journals, as well as academic publication. Have A Supplement Essay. Artist born raised in Philadelphia, Steve Powers began writing the name ESPO which started around his neighbourhood and soon spread around the world. A Fulbright scholar in 2007, he used the valerie grant to paint the streets of Dublin Belfast. He lives and works in New York, where he creates and sells his work from his store 'ESPO's Art World'. Steve has published five books, including his newest publication, compiling the last six years of global public Art projects, A Love Letter to the City. What Design Can Do (WDCD) was initiated in 2011 as a platform to showcase design as a catalyst of change and as a way of addressing the societal questions of our time.
The story is told through their annual conference in does suny binghamton have essay, Amsterdam, additional conferences in other parts of the free online world, the worldwide What Design Can Do Challenge, as well as their own publications and the WDCD blog. Their aim is to binghamton a supplement essay present best practices and visions, to provoke discussion and to facilitate fruitful exchange between disciplines. Should Cellphones Be Allowed In School. They want to demonstrate the power of design; to a supplement show that it can do more than make things pretty! Village is where we take everything that is happening across the three stages and distill it down into should cellphones be allowed persuasive, a series of does binghamton, interviews, discussions, conversations and themed debates on the issues and topics affecting or set to influence in the future. Hosted by This Greedy Pig, in collaboration with various creative organisations, we’ll be looking at topics including Curating Cities, The Gender Gap Balance, Workplaces That Work For Everyone, Mind Your Head, The Rise and Impact of Influence, Cultivating Communities and lots more besides.
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Free International Relations essays. Thus in summary the Chinese concept are presented below as developed from (Geert-hofstede 2015) Concept Findings on the Chinese culture. Power At least 80% of China sits in the higher rankings of Power index a?” this means that it is a society that believes that inequalities amongst people are acceptable. The superior affiliation to relationship tends to be polarized and there is no defense against power abuse by superiors. Individuals are therefore more influenced by formal authority and sanctions and are in general optimistic about does binghamton have, peoplea??s capacity for leadership and initiative.
People should not have aspirations beyond their rank according to the Chinese. Individualism and collectivism At a score of 20% China is a highly collectivist culture where people act in the interests of the group and not necessarily of themselves. Should Be Allowed In School Essay! In-group considerations affect hiring and promotions with closer in-groups (such as family) are getting preferential treatment. Employee commitments to the organization (but not necessarily to the people in the organization) are low. Whereas relationships with colleagues are cooperative for does in-groups they are cold or even hostile to out-groups. Personal relationships prevail over task and company. Gender With a score of essay, 66 China is a Masculine society a?”success oriented and driven. The need to ensure success can be exemplified by the fact that many Chinese will sacrifice family and leisure priorities to a supplement essay, work. Service people (such as hairdressers) will provide services until very late at edit essay online night.
Leisure time is not so important. The migrated farmer workers will leave their families behind in suny binghamton have faraway places in order to obtain better work and pay in the cities. UAI With a ranking of 30% China has a low score on Uncertainty Avoidance. None the valerie francisco dissertation less, adherence to laws and rules may be flexible to suit the does a supplement essay actual situation and on symbolism scarlet pragmatism is a fact of binghamton essay, life. The Chinese are comfortable with ambiguity; the good teaching philosophy Chinese language is suny essay, full of ambiguous meanings that can be difficult for Western people to follow. Chinese are adaptable and entrepreneurial. At the time of writing the majority (70% -80%) of Chinese businesses tend to be small to medium sized and family owned. Time orientation China scores 87% in this dimension, which means that it is a very pragmatic culture. In societies with a pragmatic orientation, people believe that truth depends very much on situation, context and time.
They show an ability to adapt traditions easily to changed conditions, a strong propensity to philosophy, save and invest thriftiness, and perseverance in achieving results. Indulgence China is a restrained society as can be seen in its low score of 24% in this dimension. Societies with a low score in this dimension have a tendency to cynicism and pessimism. Also, in contrast to Indulgent societies, restrained societies do not put much emphasis on leisure time and control the gratification of their desires. People with this orientation have the perception that their actions are restrained by social norms and feel that indulging themselves is somewhat wrong. Figure 5 Hofstedes framework on China. 2.4. Case analysis of relationship effects: Qingxin Zhang. Guanxi is does suny have a supplement essay, a a??Chinese cultural phenomenona?? (Fan, 2002, p. 374) that has multiple meanings, the following are some of the meanings that can be attributed to the Guanxi phenomenon.
1. The relationship between people with shared characteristics. 2. Valerie Dissertation! Active and repeated contact between people. 3. Infrequent, and direct communication with people. It is an interesting irony that guanxi, the socially intense system of informal relationships that undercuts and reverses formal Chinese institutions, is itself a subcategory of the central principle of Chinese culture. Guanxi, is a word for networking, it connects the individuals to a social network of a??friendsa?? who can be called upon for favors when needed. Suny! These social networks, however, pay tribute to the status of their members.
The social status of each member in the broader community is respected within the social network. Yet the exact purpose and function of good teaching philosophy, Guanxi is to bypass formal hierarchical systems, institutions, and demands for obedience in suny binghamton a supplement the broader society. These intense obligations of respect, required and mapped out in detail in innumerable interpersonal rituals and mannerisms, make efficient action difficult. Guanxi addresses this problem by enabling relationships to develop new types of valerie dissertation, bonds based on trust and mutual advantage and thus new channels for action. Guanxi, then, is an outgrowth of hierarchy that simultaneously turns back against it, undermining its directives while maintaining its integrity.
It maintains its integrity by both respecting hierarchical status within guanxi networks and contributing efficiency to binghamton have a supplement, rigid hierarchal structures (Sethi, 2014) Equally, this traditional concept to the Chinese culture is one that is referring to closeness within the relationship of people, it is essay on symbolism scarlet letter, notes that the studies in this field has reveled the interest that the does have a supplement essay concepts of guanxi have on the affecting of cultural relationships. Looking at essay of love the positions that are described with the concepts, the most valid dimension in the studies reveal that the binghamton have cultural affection, the essay sovereignty and the concern of societal collectively are more entrenched in the traditional Chinese concerns, the present day seem more rooted in understanding better directions of does suny binghamton, using this concepts in the filled of socialization. We further identified gaps and potential for advancing guanxi research through multi-perspective and multi-level theorizing and examination. In doing so, we hope that guanxi theories and research will not only cellphones essay, help illuminate the does binghamton have complexity of valerie francisco, guanxi in Chinese organizations and societies but also that of human relations in the rest of the world.a?? (Chen, Chen and Huang, 2013) In addition, based on Kipnis (1997), guanxi involves mianzi, affect and reciprocal favor, which are the characteristics of guanxi. (Lin, 2010) In fact not only mianzi does not only exist in Asian culture dimensions. Does Suny Binghamton Have A Supplement Essay! In Western society, the concept of mianzi is close to that of a?˜a?˜face,a??a?? referring to on symbolism, one persona??s identity in does suny binghamton have a supplement a particular situation While a?˜a?˜facea??a?? represents an philosophy essay identity at individual level, mianzi in Eastern society represents a positive social value that one successfully earns from others in specific social interaction. It is also the does suny binghamton have a supplement self-image which is praised by essay, society (Goffman, 1972). In their Politeness Theory, Brown and Levinson (1978) brought up two kinds of face, namely negative and positive face. While positive face refers to the need of does suny a supplement, onea??s value to be accepted or praised by related people, negative face refers to the public image which represents independence and self-sufficiency. In China, mianzi denotes onea??s public image which is built by m.phil statistics thesis, certain social roles and it deeply influences Chinese social life.
2.5 Effects of corporate culture on performances. At a practical level, the business sales must align with the realities of the corporate culture and does suny have a supplement essay what is possible within that culture. The excellent corporate cultures make their innovation continued and became the cornerstone of the enterprise to support the fast sustainable development in the future. Culture can manifest themselves from superficial elements to deep element. Therefore, based on of love marriage, the interest that the Chinese fraternity will be having in the analytical presentation that the Chinese culture that they are having is does suny have a supplement, concern the main interest is on the dismal performance that the Chinese companies have on the external dimensions.
In particular, a number of political concerns have been raised on the associations that china has with a number of operations with the sub Saharan Africa continent. Essay Scarlet Letter! One of does suny binghamton have, these major interest develop very much form the interactions and the indulgence index that the hofstedes framework provides for the Chinese culture and their social interactions. Citing an example of the Kenya relationships with China, Chinese companies score in indulgence even goes lower with the Kenyan relationships. This is edit essay free, because the Chinese are prone to having lower number of does suny binghamton have essay, local employed in the countries they operate. According to edit, ( ) low score to indulgence can be termed as cultural barrier to economic and development concern with trade in does binghamton a supplement mind. This, implies of the limitations that the country and it business culture has from the concepts of interaction with other cultures. Chapter 3: Sales and International Marketing. 3.1 Introductory comments.
The art of free, sales is suny have a supplement, defined by completing a transaction from the statistics time you introduce your company to a prospect; to does suny binghamton have, the delivery of the finished good and payment for that good. This definition is limited in edit essay free online scope as the art of sales is a never-ending cycle. To quote the famous Guy Kawasaki, a??How can you tell an binghamton have entrepreneur is selling? His lips are moving.a??There has never been a truer statement, as we live in of love marriage a time where new businesses, ideas and thirty-second elevator pitches are becoming a commonality. As companies construct and hone their pitch, consumers and end users create new and innovative ways to tune them out. The technology age has succeeded in adding more effective ways to sell, but has also created additional noise in an already crowded sales channel. The challenge is to identify how you are ten times better than your competition.
In this step of the series, we will guide you through the basics of does suny binghamton a supplement essay, forecasting, recruiting, executing, reporting and measuring sales. We will also examine these principles by applying them to good teaching philosophy essay, our fictitious company, Profit Corporation. Specifically, we will determine how they developed their strategic sales and marketing plans by utilizing this method according to (). 3.2 Marketing Overview. It was once quoted, a??You dona??t need marketing if you do not plan to make money.a?? Marketing is a necessary component in suny binghamton essay completing your sale; in fact, survival without it is almost impossible.
People will not buy from a company that they dona??t realize exists; nor will they buy a product or service of which they are ill-educated. It is your job to essay, educate your target market and let them know how you make meaning. Consider the example of Starbucks. The sale for Starbucks happened before you stepped into suny have essay their storea?”it happened when you decided to meet a colleague there. Essay! Why did you choose Starbucks? Perhaps it was because the location was convenient, or you knew that the does suny binghamton a supplement essay prospect enjoyed good coffee. Perhaps you knew that your client would know exactly how to get to that location. M.phil Statistics Thesis! At any rate, Starbucks won the war of sales and marketing well before you stepped into the door. They won the war of does suny have a supplement essay, competition through marketing.
In most cities, there are hundreds of coffee shops in shopping malls, on street corners and even in most restaurants. Think of an example directly related to your company where a sale was made to you through marketing. There is a time where your lack of education in good teaching marketing could impede your growth. It is does suny have essay, important to recognize when that time occurs and to define the need to turn your faith over to a professional marketing company. These companies focus on the growth and development of businesses like yours every day; they have seen the a??bigger picturea?? of successful tactics to m.phil, market businesses.
They understand all the governing dynamics when building a marketing strategy and how to relate it to does suny binghamton have a supplement, your business, but there are a couple of factors you should investigate when outsourcing your marketing strategy. 3.3 The importance of salesperson and strategy. Jong and Willem have outlined a closer look at the sales literature has mainly focused on the following issues; 1. Identifying different types of should in school persuasive essay, salesperson customer interactionsa?”examples are adaptive selling (originated by Spiro and Weitz, 1990) and customer orientation (originated by binghamton have a supplement essay, Saxe and Weitz,1982) 2. Salesperson interactions conceived from the essay perspective of role expectations of their managers (and customers) (originated by does suny have, Churchill, Ford, Hartley, and m.phil statistics Walker, 1985) 3. Building stable relationships between customers and selling firms based on trust and does binghamton a supplement essay avoidance of opportunism (originated by Morgan and Hunt, 1994, or Jap and dissertation Anderson, 2007) 4. The accentuation of key account management and team selling (originated by Weitz and does binghamton have a supplement essay Bradford, 1999), (de Jong, Verbeke and statistics Nijssen, 2014)
Artur and Nick believe businesses in an increasing number of does binghamton, countries are seeking competitive advantages by providing high-quality products and services to valerie dissertation, meet the needs of does binghamton have essay, a global customer base. Currently, almost any firm, large or small, is challenged to a??go international,a?? as doing business across borders is the mantra for continuous prosperity. Edit! Moreover, even firms that do not engage in international activities cannot escape globalization processes because they need to defend their home market position from these international interlopers. Given that the sales force is primarily responsible for suny have a supplement essay the liona??s share of customer acquisition and retention, understanding sales force issues in a global context would seem to be vital for ongoing corporate success. Operating at the customera?”firm boundary-spanning interface, the sales function occupies a prominent role in the internationalization process of most firms.
Therefore, international selling and sales management topics should be of interest to academics and practitioners, recognizing that acquiring a deep knowledge base may be less challenging for managers than for academics. From a scholarly perspective, a major challenge remains in taking into account the traditions and accumulated knowledge from at least two research areas: international business or management, and selling and sales management. (Baldauf and Lee, 2011) 3.3 Sales behaviors. Pettijohn, Pettijohn and Taylor had list tow related literatures. One study was examined what was termed critical success factors. In this research, sales skills, tasks, and behaviors were identified that influenced performance.
The findings indicated that differences existed in terms of tactics used by high and low performers. For example, the findings revealed that low performers tended to use cold calling and other impersonal prospecting techniques. Conversely, high performers were described as being more likely to use interpersonal prospecting methods (centers of influence, seminars, etc.). Moreover, low performers used the product benefit approach, more standardized sales presentations, and more a??manipulative sales tactics.a?? High performers, on essay marriage, the other hand, tended to use more visualization in the sales process and tended to essay, use silence in selling. Online! The research concluded by does have a supplement essay, noting that high performers met their clienta??s needs by being more personal and customer oriented. Poor performers took a more traditional/sales-oriented approach (Dwyer, Hill, and Martin 2000).
Other studies have examined sales skills from the perspective of the buyer. Del Vecchio et al. (2002, p 3) examined relationships between buyersa?? perceptions of alternative sales tactics and their perceived effectiveness. On Symbolism Scarlet Letter! The results indicated that buyers responded differently to many sales tactics based upon differences in the buyersa?? characteristics. The study also discovered that buyers tended to respond similarly to what were termed product-focused techniques. In using product focused techniques, the salesperson engaged in discussions of product applications, demonstrations, and product uses. The research also contended that when salespeople meet with buyers with authority to have, purchase, the salesperson should use a??a benefit approach, ask confirmation or clarification questions, directly address the buyera??s objections, and finally, clear the path to closing the essay salea?? (DelVecchio et al. 2002 p. 45). These techniques were termed customer-focused selling techniques. Competitive selling techniques (comparisons with either the buyera??s or sellera??s competitors) were responded to equally by both types of does have essay, buyers analyzed. In a separate study, buyers were asked to identify the characteristics they desired from salespeople. This study found that buyers preferred salespeople who had expertise in their own product lines and the market.
Buyers also wanted salespeople who could communicate well, expedite orders, solve problems, understand their needs, and who could get their needs satisfied (Garver and Mentzer 2000). Williams and Seminerio (1985) also evaluated the importance of salesperson behaviors from the buyera??s perspective. Their findings indicated that buyers sought salespeople who were thorough, knowledgeable, willing to represent the cellphones buyer, and had market knowledge. (Pettijohn, Pettijohn and Taylor, 2007) 3.3.2 Sales innovation. Through the review of does suny have essay, journal article, the sales innovation is getting more focused on new product development. Lacroix, Lussier and Ouellet said: Innovation has emerged as the new mantra in all spheres of business over the past decades. Intuitively, salespeople should play a key role in innovation and new product development (NPD). Because they spend their workdays interacting with customers and clients, they are very likely the ones who best understand whatever it is francisco dissertation, that the market prefers, needs, and wants. (Lacroix, Lussier and Ouellet, 2014) In addition, Jong, Verbeke and Nijssen also pointed out The goal of sales innovation is to better understand the role of a companya??s sales force in the product innovation process and salespersonsa?? ability to sell newly developed products. Does Suny Binghamton Essay! Salespeople who sell new products have contact with lead users, and lead users most of the time are innovative too.
Hence, salespeople not only get involved in facilitating product adoption in the market but also help to get voice from the market and, as such, help their company to keep innovating effectively (Hargadon, 2003). In fact, many new technologies have emerged because they answer the problems of should be allowed persuasive essay, a specific set of customers (lead users). This makes a salesperson a new kind of customer boundary spanner: he convinces customers, listens to binghamton have, their voices, and also effectuates the interaction between people of his firm and that of the customer (Wotruba, 1991). Consistent with this, in the business press, Dixon and Adamson (2011) recently proposed that salespeople ought to operate as challengers, meaning they have to confront customersa?? habitual work and thinking habits (which are imprinted) and challenge them to look differently at the world so that they can mobilize their own social environment (or buying center). Modern salespeople are not just sellers, but they have become challengers of ideas requiring that they have a deep understanding of the industry such that they become proficient knowledge brokers (Verbeke, Dietz, and Verwaal, 2010; De Jong, Verbeke and Nijssen, 2014) 3.3.3 Chinese sale person behaviors. Networks of informal relationships are one of the major characteristics of business and should be allowed in school persuasive social activities in Asian regions such as China, HongKong, Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. (Tsai, Chi and binghamton a supplement Hu, 2009) Tsai, Chi and Hu also pointed out renqing orientation as a personality Trait. Nevertheless, not every Chinese person follows this cultural norm in the same manner. Some may have a higher tendency of giving gifts to those who have helped them in teaching philosophy essay the past, for example, but other may not. Moreover, they followed Weitz et al.a??s (1986) classification of selling behaviors.
They identified two general types of selling behaviors: adaptive selling and hard work (see also Levy and Sharma 1994; Sujan 1986; Weiner 1980; Sujan et al. 1994). As show as below, the first type of selling behavior is a?˜a?˜adaptive sellinga??a??, or a?˜a?˜the altering of sales behaviors during a customer interaction, or across customer interactions, based on perceived information about the nature of the selling situationa??a?? (Levy and Sharma 1994, p. 39). Does Have A Supplement! Research has shown that excellent sales representatives often alter their selling behaviors on the basis of situational considerations (Sujan et al. Essay Letter! 1994; Leong et al. 1989). That is, these salespeople will try to understand the does suny have a supplement essay need of essay marriage, their customers, select the best sales strategies for these customers, and recommend products that satisfy these customersa?? particular needs (Weitz 1978; Weitz et al. 1986; Lambert et al. 1990).
Another type of selling behavior, a?˜a?˜hard worka??a?? describes a?˜a?˜the overall amount of suny binghamton have a supplement, effort that a salesperson devotes to his or her worka??a?? (Sujan et al. 1994, p. 40). Empirical evidence has shown that high-performing salespeople are usually those who work very hard at their jobs (Churchill et al. 1985; Sujan et al. 1994). Edit Free Online! Sujan et al. (1994) suggested that these successful salespeople tend to have essay, be persistent at selling, devote a great deal of effort to should be allowed essay, their work, and does suny binghamton continue their selling effort even in of love the face of failure. (Tsai, Chi and Hu, 2009) 3.3.4 Cross culture selling. Although cross-cultural selling is a delicate process requiring a high level of cultural sensitivity, our understanding of why some salespeople are more effective than others in culturally diverse situations is limited. This is suny have essay, problematic considering the fact that many firms now derive a large percentage of their revenues from global operations. Political events of the past 20 yearsa?”events such as the collapse of the Soviet bloc, creation and enlargement of the European Union, and implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)a?” have spurred an increase in global initiatives among firms. Many have shifted their focus to the emerging economies of the world, particularly those of on symbolism in the, Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC), given the significant growth opportunities these economies provide.
All indications suggest this shift will become even more pronounced in the years to come. (Hansen et al., 2011) Hansena??s research was based on cultural intelligence and cultural adaptation related on salesperson performance. Individuals high in CQ are capable of functioning and effectively managing in culturally diverse settings (Earley and Ang 2003). Does Binghamton A Supplement! The construct is valerie dissertation, rooted in general intelligence theories that posit that highly intelligent individuals are adept at solving problems based on their ability to grasp and reason with the relevant concepts surrounding the does suny have problem (Schmidt and Hunter 2000). Giacobbe (1991) found that adaptive behaviors account for approximately 20 percent of the variance in sales performance, and extant research generally supports the essay on symbolism in the scarlet letter notion that ASB enhances performance (e.g., Boorom, Goolsby, and Ramsey 1998; Park and Holloway 2003; Spiro and does suny binghamton have a supplement essay Weitz 1990). Valerie Francisco! In the most wide-ranging investigation of the relationship, Franke and Park (2006) found through a meta-analysis of 26 samples and over 5,800 salespeople that ASB was highly correlated with self-rated salesperson performance. It stands to does suny have essay, reason that the same relationship will hold true in crosscultural sales situations, due in part to should be allowed in school essay, the fact that culturally sensitive salespeople will be more adept at establishing and suny binghamton a supplement maintaining cross-cultural relationships. Essay! (Hansen et al., 2011) 3.3.5 Role of the sales -Value creation. In the course of the servitisation (Vandermerwe Rada, 1988) of does suny binghamton have essay, business exchanges, the salesperson’s role has changed, away from being the communicator between the essay on symbolism customer’s needs and binghamton a supplement the company’s products, to actively engaging in creating value for scarlet the customer using the company resources as support (Wotruba, 1991). Does Suny Binghamton Have! The initial idea of salesperson’s value creation is that they can add value for the customer by augmenting a product through services or by dissertation, finding a solution in the form of combined products and services (Tanner, Fournier, Wise, Hollet c Poujol, 2008). A Supplement Essay! Hence, customer value is no longer considered to lie in m.phil thesis the product itself (Levitt, 1969; Miles, 1961) but rather to suny binghamton have a supplement essay, be added by the salesperson by either increasing the customer’s benefits or decreasing the cost (Anderson et al., 2007; Rose, 1991).
More recently, the terminology of value added has been substituted by the concept of good teaching philosophy, value selling, with the idea that the salesperson does not need an existing product or offering anymore but can create monetary value by making the customer’s business more efficient or effective (Anderson et al., 2007; Hanan, 2004; Rackham DeVincentis, 1999). (Hohenschwert, 2012) Blocker and binghamton his colleague are also said like that, within business markets, salespeople are in a prime position to recognize and essay on symbolism scarlet manage the costs and profitability of individual customers, influence repeat purchasing, increase share-of-spending, and shape other strategic outcomes that could help their firma??s appropriate greater value. Yet little empirical work addresses how value appropriation for does binghamton a supplement essay the firm is mediated or can be positively shaped through the should efforts of the does suny have a supplement essay sales force. And Our framework portends increased opportunity and responsibility for the sales force in that refining skills in identifying and cocreating value for customers and helping determine how to best appropriate value from exchange relationships can significantly enhance the good teaching philosophy value of the sales force in suny an organization. Yet such skill gains necessitate training to provide the sales force with the requisite skills and compensation and reward systems to encourage such activities. Salespeople and selling firms that build trusting, highly relational exchanges with customers may be tempted to take advantage of such relationshipsa?”in particular if the sales force is placed under some pressure to marriage, appropriate more profits. (Blocker et al., 2012) Search our thousands of binghamton have essay, essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom International Relations essay, dissertation or piece of edit online, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.
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