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Politics and the English Language. Most people who bother with the essays on customization applications, matter at all would admit that the English language is in baby thesis for bucket two, a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civilization is decadent and our language — so the argument runs — must inevitably share in the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of language is applications, a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to on terrorism 2015 electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes. Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is a natural growth and not an essays in marketing instrument which we shape for our own purposes. Now, it is clear that the essay on terrorism 2015, decline of a language must ultimately have political and economic causes: it is not due simply to the bad influence of this or that individual writer.
But an effect can become a cause, reinforcing the original cause and producing the same effect in an intensified form, and applications, so on indefinitely. A man may take to drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the more completely because he drinks. It is rather the same thing that is happening to the English language. It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts. The point is that the baby thesis two, process is reversible. Modern English, especially written English, is full of bad habits which spread by imitation and which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary trouble. If one gets rid of these habits one can think more clearly, and to think clearly is essays in marketing, a necessary first step toward political regeneration: so that the fight against bad English is thesis for bucket two, not frivolous and is not the exclusive concern of professional writers. I will come back to this presently, and I hope that by that time the essays applications in marketing, meaning of what I have said here will have become clearer. Meanwhile, here are five specimens of the English language as it is now habitually written. These five passages have not been picked out because they are especially bad — I could have quoted far worse if I had chosen — but because they illustrate various of the mental vices from which we now suffer.
They are a little below the articles confederation, average, but are fairly representative examples. I number them so that I can refer back to them when necessary: 1. I am not, indeed, sure whether it is not true to essays on customization applications say that the Milton who once seemed not unlike a seventeenth-century Shelley had not become, out of an experience ever more bitter in essay future of democracy, each year, more alien [sic] to on customization applications in marketing the founder of that Jesuit sect which nothing could induce him to tolerate. Professor Harold Laski (Essay in Freedom of und integration Expression ) 2. Above all, we cannot play ducks and drakes with a native battery of idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of vocables as the applications, Basic put up with for tolerate , or put at a loss for bewilder . Professor Lancelot Hogben ( Interglossia ) 3. On Terrorism In Pakistan! On the one side we have the free personality: by definition it is not neurotic, for it has neither conflict nor dream. Its desires, such as they are, are transparent, for they are just what institutional approval keeps in in marketing, the forefront of consciousness; another institutional pattern would alter their number and intensity; there is little in them that is natural, irreducible, or culturally dangerous. But on the other side , the social bond itself is nothing but the mutual reflection of in pakistan 2015 these self-secure integrities.
Recall the definition of in marketing love. Essays! Is not this the very picture of a small academic? Where is there a place in this hall of mirrors for either personality or fraternity? Essay on psychology in Politics (New York) 4. All the ‘best people’ from the essays, gentlemen's clubs, and all the frantic fascist captains, united in common hatred of of democracy in india Socialism and bestial horror at the rising tide of the mass revolutionary movement, have turned to acts of applications in marketing provocation, to foul incendiarism, to medieval legends of poisoned wells, to essay 2015 legalize their own destruction of proletarian organizations, and essays in marketing, rouse the agitated petty-bourgeoise to chauvinistic fervor on behalf of the on terrorism, fight against the revolutionary way out of the crisis. 5. If a new spirit is to be infused into this old country, there is one thorny and essays applications in marketing, contentious reform which must be tackled, and that is the humanization and galvanization of the B.B.C. Timidity here will bespeak canker and atrophy of the soul. The heart of Britain may be sound and of strong beat, for instance, but the British lion's roar at present is like that of Bottom in baby thesis for bucket two, Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream — as gentle as any sucking dove. A virile new Britain cannot continue indefinitely to be traduced in the eyes or rather ears, of the world by the effete languors of Langham Place, brazenly masquerading as ‘standard English’. When the Voice of Britain is heard at nine o'clock, better far and infinitely less ludicrous to hear aitches honestly dropped than the present priggish, inflated, inhibited, school-ma'amish arch braying of blameless bashful mewing maidens! Letter in Tribune.
Each of these passages has faults of its own, but, quite apart from applications in marketing, avoidable ugliness, two qualities are common to all of them. The first is staleness of imagery; the other is lack of precision. In Pakistan 2015! The writer either has a meaning and applications in marketing, cannot express it, or he inadvertently says something else, or he is on the in india, almost indifferent as to whether his words mean anything or not. This mixture of on customization applications in marketing vagueness and sheer incompetence is the most marked characteristic of modern English prose, and especially of any kind of political writing. As soon as certain topics are raised, the concrete melts into the abstract and no one seems able to on b120 tma02 think of turns of speech that are not hackneyed: prose consists less and less of applications words chosen for the sake of their meaning, and more and more of phrases tacked together like the essay, sections of a prefabricated hen-house. I list below, with notes and examples, various of the tricks by essays on customization, means of which the work of prose-construction is habitually dodged. DYING METAPHORS. A newly invented metaphor assists thought by evoking a visual image, while on the other hand a metaphor which is technically ‘dead’ (e. g. iron resolution) has in effect reverted to being an ordinary word and on terrorism in pakistan 2015, can generally be used without loss of vividness. But in between these two classes there is a huge dump of worn-out metaphors which have lost all evocative power and are merely used because they save people the on customization applications in marketing, trouble of inventing phrases for themselves.
Examples are: Ring the changes on, take up the cudgel for, toe the line, ride roughshod over, stand shoulder to shoulder with, play into essay on b120 tma02, the hands of, no axe to grind, grist to the mill, fishing in troubled waters, on the order of the day, Achilles’ heel, swan song, hotbed . Many of these are used without knowledge of their meaning (what is a ‘rift’, for instance?), and incompatible metaphors are frequently mixed, a sure sign that the writer is applications, not interested in what he is articles confederation failed, saying. Some metaphors now current have been twisted out of their original meaning without those who use them even being aware of the fact. For example, toe the on customization, line is sometimes written as tow the line . Another example is the in pakistan 2015, hammer and the anvil , now always used with the implication that the anvil gets the worst of on customization applications in marketing it. In real life it is always the anvil that breaks the hammer, never the other way about: a writer who stopped to think what he was saying would avoid perverting the original phrase. OPERATORS OR VERBAL FALSE LIMBS. These save the trouble of picking out appropriate verbs and nouns, and at the same time pad each sentence with extra syllables which give it an on the future of democracy appearance of symmetry. Characteristic phrases are render inoperative, militate against, make contact with, be subjected to, give rise to, give grounds for, have the effect of, play a leading part (role) in, make itself felt, take effect, exhibit a tendency to, serve the purpose of, etc., etc. In Marketing! The keynote is the elimination of simple verbs. Confederation Failed! Instead of essays on customization applications in marketing being a single word, such as break, stop, spoil, mend, kill, a verb becomes a phrase , made up of a noun or adjective tacked on to some general-purpose verb such as prove, serve, form, play, render . In addition, the passive voice is wherever possible used in preference to on the future of democracy the active, and noun constructions are used instead of essays applications gerunds ( by examination of instead of by examining ). The range of verbs is further cut down by means of the -ize and de- formations, and the banal statements are given an appearance of profundity by means of the not un- formation. Simple conjunctions and prepositions are replaced by such phrases as with respect to, having regard to, the fact that, by dint of, in view of, in the interests of, on the hypothesis that ; and the ends of sentences are saved by anticlimax by such resounding commonplaces as greatly to be desired, cannot be left out of account, a development to be expected in the near future, deserving of serious consideration, brought to a satisfactory conclusion, and so on and so forth.
PRETENTIOUS DICTION. Words like phenomenon, element, individual (as noun), objective, categorical, effective, virtual, basic, primary, promote, constitute, exhibit, exploit, utilize, eliminate, liquidate, are used to dress up a simple statement and give an air of scientific impartiality to biased judgements. Adjectives like epoch-making, epic, historic, unforgettable, triumphant, age-old, inevitable, inexorable, veritable, are used to dignify the sordid process of international politics, while writing that aims at glorifying war usually takes on an archaic colour, its characteristic words being: realm, throne, chariot, mailed fist, trident, sword, shield, buckler, banner, jackboot, clarion. Foreign words and expressions such as cul de sac, ancien regime, deus ex machina, mutatis mutandis, status quo, gleichschaltung, weltanschauung, are used to give an air of culture and elegance. Except for the useful abbreviations i. e., e. g. and baby for bucket, etc., there is no real need for any of the hundreds of foreign phrases now current in the English language. Bad writers, and especially scientific, political, and on customization applications, sociological writers, are nearly always haunted by the notion that Latin or Greek words are grander than Saxon ones, and unnecessary words like expedite, ameliorate, predict, extraneous, deracinated, clandestine, subaqueous, and hundreds of others constantly gain ground from their Anglo-Saxon numbers (1) . The jargon peculiar to Marxist writing ( hyena, hangman, cannibal, petty bourgeois, these gentry, lackey, flunkey, mad dog, White Guard, etc.) consists largely of words translated from Russian, German, or French; but the normal way of pro and penalty coining a new word is to essays applications in marketing use Latin or Greek root with the appropriate affix and, where necessary, the size formation. It is often easier to make up words of this kind ( deregionalize, impermissible, extramarital, non-fragmentary and so forth) than to think up the English words that will cover one's meaning. The result, in general, is an on b120 increase in slovenliness and vagueness. MEANINGLESS WORDS. In certain kinds of writing, particularly in essays applications, art criticism and literary criticism, it is normal to come across long passages which are almost completely lacking in meaning (2) . Words like romantic, plastic, values, human, dead, sentimental, natural, vitality, as used in con death penalty paper, art criticism, are strictly meaningless, in the sense that they not only do not point to essays applications any discoverable object, but are hardly ever expected to do so by politische essays zu migration, the reader.
When one critic writes, ‘The outstanding feature of Mr. X's work is its living quality’, while another writes, ‘The immediately striking thing about Mr. X's work is its peculiar deadness’, the reader accepts this as a simple difference opinion. If words like black and white were involved, instead of the essays in marketing, jargon words dead and on b120, living , he would see at once that language was being used in applications in marketing, an improper way. Many political words are similarly abused. Future Of Democracy In India! The word Fascism has now no meaning except in so far as it signifies ‘something not desirable’. The words democracy, socialism, freedom, patriotic, realistic, justice have each of them several different meanings which cannot be reconciled with one another.
In the case of essays in marketing a word like democracy , not only is essay on the in india, there no agreed definition, but the attempt to make one is on customization in marketing, resisted from all sides. It is of democracy in india, almost universally felt that when we call a country democratic we are praising it: consequently the defenders of every kind of regime claim that it is a democracy, and fear that they might have to stop using that word if it were tied down to any one meaning. Words of this kind are often used in a consciously dishonest way. On Customization! That is, the essay, person who uses them has his own private definition, but allows his hearer to think he means something quite different. Essays Applications In Marketing! Statements like Marshal Petain was a true patriot, The Soviet press is the freest in the world, The Catholic Church is pro and con death paper, opposed to essays persecution, are almost always made with intent to deceive. Other words used in variable meanings, in most cases more or less dishonestly, are: class, totalitarian, science, progressive, reactionary, bourgeois, equality. Now that I have made this catalogue of swindles and perversions, let me give another example of the kind of writing that they lead to. This time it must of its nature be an imaginary one. I am going to translate a passage of good English into modern English of the worst sort. Here is a well-known verse from Ecclesiastes : I returned and pro and con death paper, saw under the sun, that the race is on customization applications in marketing, not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of on terrorism in pakistan skill; but time and chance happeneth to essays applications them all.
Here it is in modern English: Objective considerations of contemporary phenomena compel the politische zu migration, conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into account. This is a parody, but not a very gross one. Exhibit (3) above, for instance, contains several patches of the same kind of English. It will be seen that I have not made a full translation.
The beginning and ending of the sentence follow the original meaning fairly closely, but in the middle the concrete illustrations — race, battle, bread — dissolve into the vague phrases ‘success or failure in essays, competitive activities’. On Terrorism In Pakistan! This had to be so, because no modern writer of the kind I am discussing — no one capable of on customization in marketing using phrases like ‘objective considerations of contemporary phenomena’ — would ever tabulate his thoughts in that precise and detailed way. The whole tendency of modern prose is away from concreteness. Now analyze these two sentences a little more closely. Essay On The Future In India! The first contains forty-nine words but only sixty syllables, and applications, all its words are those of everyday life. The second contains thirty-eight words of ninety syllables: eighteen of those words are from Latin roots, and one from Greek. Essay On Terrorism! The first sentence contains six vivid images, and only one phrase (‘time and chance’) that could be called vague.
The second contains not a single fresh, arresting phrase, and in spite of its ninety syllables it gives only a shortened version of the meaning contained in the first. Yet without a doubt it is the second kind of on customization applications sentence that is gaining ground in politische essays zu migration und integration, modern English. I do not want to exaggerate. This kind of writing is not yet universal, and outcrops of simplicity will occur here and there in the worst-written page. Still, if you or I were told to write a few lines on on customization the uncertainty of pro and penalty human fortunes, we should probably come much nearer to my imaginary sentence than to the one from Ecclesiastes . As I have tried to show, modern writing at its worst does not consist in picking out words for the sake of on customization in marketing their meaning and inventing images in order to make the meaning clearer. It consists in gumming together long strips of words which have already been set in order by someone else, and making the results presentable by 2015, sheer humbug. The attraction of this way of writing is that it is essays on customization applications in marketing, easy. It is easier — even quicker, once you have the habit — to essay say In my opinion it is not an in marketing unjustifiable assumption that than to say I think . If you use ready-made phrases, you not only essay tma02, don't have to hunt about for the words; you also don't have to bother with the rhythms of your sentences since these phrases are generally so arranged as to be more or less euphonious. When you are composing in a hurry — when you are dictating to a stenographer, for instance, or making a public speech — it is natural to fall into a pretentious, Latinized style.
Tags like a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind or a conclusion to which all of us would readily assent will save many a sentence from coming down with a bump. Essays In Marketing! By using stale metaphors, similes, and idioms, you save much mental effort, at articles confederation, the cost of leaving your meaning vague, not only for your reader but for yourself. This is the significance of essays in marketing mixed metaphors. The sole aim of a metaphor is to call up a visual image. On The Future Of Democracy! When these images clash — as in The Fascist octopus has sung its swan song, the jackboot is essays, thrown into the melting pot — it can be taken as certain that the writer is not seeing a mental image of the politische und integration, objects he is naming; in other words he is on customization applications in marketing, not really thinking. Look again at the examples I gave at the beginning of this essay. Penalty Paper! Professor Laski (1) uses five negatives in fifty three words.
One of on customization in marketing these is superfluous, making nonsense of the pro and paper, whole passage, and in addition there is the essays in marketing, slip — alien for akin — making further nonsense, and several avoidable pieces of clumsiness which increase the general vagueness. Professor Hogben (2) plays ducks and essay tma02, drakes with a battery which is able to write prescriptions, and, while disapproving of the everyday phrase put up with , is unwilling to applications in marketing look egregious up in the dictionary and see what it means; (3), if one takes an uncharitable attitude towards it, is simply meaningless: probably one could work out essay in pakistan, its intended meaning by essays on customization applications in marketing, reading the whole of the article in which it occurs. In (4), the writer knows more or less what he wants to say, but an accumulation of stale phrases chokes him like tea leaves blocking a sink. In (5), words and meaning have almost parted company. People who write in this manner usually have a general emotional meaning — they dislike one thing and want to express solidarity with another — but they are not interested in the detail of what they are saying. A scrupulous writer, in every sentence that he writes, will ask himself at least four questions, thus: What am I trying to say? What words will express it? What image or idiom will make it clearer? Is this image fresh enough to have an effect? And he will probably ask himself two more: Could I put it more shortly? Have I said anything that is avoidably ugly?
But you are not obliged to go to all this trouble. You can shirk it by simply throwing your mind open and letting the ready-made phrases come crowding in. The will construct your sentences for you — even think your thoughts for you, to a certain extent — and at need they will perform the important service of essay confederation failed partially concealing your meaning even from yourself. Essays In Marketing! It is at this point that the special connection between politics and the debasement of language becomes clear. In our time it is broadly true that political writing is bad writing. Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the writer is some kind of rebel, expressing his private opinions and not a ‘party line’. Orthodoxy, of whatever colour, seems to demand a lifeless, imitative style. The political dialects to on b120 tma02 be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestos, White papers and the speeches of undersecretaries do, of course, vary from party to party, but they are all alike in that one almost never finds in them a fresh, vivid, homemade turn of essays speech. When one watches some tired hack on the platform mechanically repeating the familiar phrases — bestial, atrocities, iron heel, bloodstained tyranny, free peoples of the world, stand shoulder to shoulder — one often has a curious feeling that one is not watching a live human being but some kind of dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the on the future, light catches the essays on customization, speaker's spectacles and turns them into essay on the in india, blank discs which seem to have no eyes behind them. And this is essays applications, not altogether fanciful. A speaker who uses that kind of phraseology has gone some distance toward turning himself into a machine.
The appropriate noises are coming out of tma02 his larynx, but his brain is essays, not involved, as it would be if he were choosing his words for himself. Politische Essays! If the speech he is making is essays on customization applications in marketing, one that he is accustomed to make over and over again, he may be almost unconscious of what he is essay tma02, saying, as one is when one utters the responses in church. And this reduced state of consciousness, if not indispensable, is at any rate favourable to political conformity. In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defence of the on customization, indefensible. Things like the continuance of British rule in essay in india, India, the Russian purges and deportations, the dropping of the atom bombs on essays Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by arguments which are too brutal for most people to face, and which do not square with the professed aims of the political parties. Thus political language has to essay in pakistan consist largely of euphemism, question-begging and sheer cloudy vagueness. Defenceless villages are bombarded from the air, the applications in marketing, inhabitants driven out into the countryside, the cattle machine-gunned, the on the future of democracy in india, huts set on fire with incendiary bullets: this is called pacification . Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of population or rectification of frontiers . People are imprisoned for years without trial, or shot in the back of the essays, neck or sent to die of scurvy in Arctic lumber camps: this is called elimination of essay unreliable elements . Such phraseology is needed if one wants to name things without calling up mental pictures of them. Consider for instance some comfortable English professor defending Russian totalitarianism. He cannot say outright, ‘I believe in applications, killing off your opponents when you can get good results by pro and con death penalty, doing so’.
Probably, therefore, he will say something like this: ‘While freely conceding that the essays applications, Soviet regime exhibits certain features which the articles confederation, humanitarian may be inclined to deplore, we must, I think, agree that a certain curtailment of the right to political opposition is an unavoidable concomitant of transitional periods, and that the essays on customization, rigors which the Russian people have been called upon to undergo have been amply justified in the sphere of concrete achievement.’ The inflated style itself is a kind of euphemism. On Terrorism In Pakistan! A mass of Latin words falls upon essays on customization applications in marketing the facts like soft snow, blurring the outline and covering up all the details. The great enemy of clear language is on the future in india, insincerity. When there is a gap between one's real and one's declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish spurting out on customization, ink. In our age there is on b120 tma02, no such thing as ‘keeping out of politics’. All issues are political issues, and politics itself is essays on customization applications in marketing, a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and schizophrenia.
When the general atmosphere is bad, language must suffer. I should expect to find — this is a guess which I have not sufficient knowledge to verify — that the und integration, German, Russian and Italian languages have all deteriorated in on customization in marketing, the last ten or fifteen years, as a result of dictatorship. But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought. A bad usage can spread by tradition and imitation even among people who should and essay, do know better. The debased language that I have been discussing is in some ways very convenient. Essays! Phrases like a not unjustifiable assumption, leaves much to be desired, would serve no good purpose, a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind, are a continuous temptation, a packet of aspirins always at one's elbow. Look back through this essay, and for certain you will find that I have again and again committed the very faults I am protesting against. By this morning's post I have received a pamphlet dealing with conditions in Germany. The author tells me that he ‘felt impelled’ to write it. I open it at random, and here is almost the first sentence I see: ‘[The Allies] have an opportunity not only confederation failed, of achieving a radical transformation of Germany's social and political structure in such a way as to avoid a nationalistic reaction in Germany itself, but at the same time of laying the essays on customization applications, foundations of a co-operative and unified Europe.’ You see, he ‘feels impelled’ to write — feels, presumably, that he has something new to say — and yet his words, like cavalry horses answering the bugle, group themselves automatically into the familiar dreary pattern. This invasion of one's mind by ready-made phrases ( lay the foundations, achieve a radical transformation ) can only be prevented if one is constantly on guard against them, and every such phrase anaesthetizes a portion of one's brain.
I said earlier that the decadence of our language is probably curable. Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an argument at all, that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by any direct tinkering with words and penalty, constructions. So far as the on customization applications in marketing, general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is penalty paper, not true in detail. Silly words and expressions have often disappeared, not through any evolutionary process but owing to the conscious action of a minority. Two recent examples were explore every avenue and leave no stone unturned , which were killed by applications in marketing, the jeers of a few journalists. There is a long list of flyblown metaphors which could similarly be got rid of if enough people would interest themselves in the job; and it should also be possible to laugh the politische zu migration, not un- formation out of existence (3) , to reduce the amount of Latin and essays applications in marketing, Greek in the average sentence, to drive out foreign phrases and strayed scientific words, and, in general, to make pretentiousness unfashionable.
But all these are minor points. The defence of the English language implies more than this, and perhaps it is best to start by saying what it does not imply. To begin with it has nothing to do with archaism, with the paper, salvaging of obsolete words and turns of speech, or with the setting up of a ‘standard English’ which must never be departed from. On Customization! On the thesis two, contrary, it is especially concerned with the scrapping of every word or idiom which has outworn its usefulness. Essays On Customization Applications! It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax, which are of no importance so long as one makes one's meaning clear, or with the avoidance of Americanisms, or with having what is called a ‘good prose style’. Essay! On the other hand, it is not concerned with fake simplicity and the attempt to essays make written English colloquial. Nor does it even imply in every case preferring the Saxon word to the Latin one, though it does imply using the fewest and shortest words that will cover one's meaning. What is above all needed is to let the meaning choose the pro and con death penalty, word, and not the other way around. In prose, the worst thing one can do with words is surrender to on customization applications them. Politische Zu Migration! When you think of a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and then, if you want to describe the essays in marketing, thing you have been visualising you probably hunt about until you find the exact words that seem to fit it.
When you think of something abstract you are more inclined to use words from the start, and unless you make a conscious effort to con death penalty prevent it, the existing dialect will come rushing in applications in marketing, and do the essays zu migration und integration, job for you, at the expense of essays applications in marketing blurring or even changing your meaning. Politische Essays Zu Migration Und Integration! Probably it is better to put off using words as long as possible and get one's meaning as clear as one can through pictures and sensations. Essays Applications In Marketing! Afterward one can choose — not simply accept — the phrases that will best cover the meaning, and then switch round and decide what impressions one's words are likely to make on another person. This last effort of the 2015, mind cuts out all stale or mixed images, all prefabricated phrases, needless repetitions, and humbug and vagueness generally. Applications In Marketing! But one can often be in doubt about the effect of politische essays a word or a phrase, and one needs rules that one can rely on applications when instinct fails.
I think the following rules will cover most cases: Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of baby for bucket speech which you are used to in marketing seeing in print. Zu Migration! Never use a long word where a short one will do. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. Never use the passive where you can use the active.
Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent. On Customization In Marketing! Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. These rules sound elementary, and so they are, but they demand a deep change of attitude in anyone who has grown used to writing in the style now fashionable. One could keep all of them and still write bad English, but one could not write the kind of stuff that I quoted in those five specimens at the beginning of essay tma02 this article. I have not here been considering the on customization in marketing, literary use of language, but merely language as an instrument for expressing and not for essay on terrorism concealing or preventing thought. Stuart Chase and essays applications, others have come near to claiming that all abstract words are meaningless, and have used this as a pretext for advocating a kind of political quietism. Politische Zu Migration Und Integration! Since you don't know what Fascism is, how can you struggle against Fascism? One need not swallow such absurdities as this, but one ought to recognise that the present political chaos is connected with the in marketing, decay of language, and that one can probably bring about some improvement by starting at thesis for bucket two, the verbal end. If you simplify your English, you are freed from the worst follies of orthodoxy. You cannot speak any of the necessary dialects, and when you make a stupid remark its stupidity will be obvious, even to yourself. Political language — and with variations this is true of all political parties, from essays applications, Conservatives to Anarchists — is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind.
One cannot change this all in a moment, but one can at least change one's own habits, and from time to time one can even, if one jeers loudly enough, send some worn-out and useless phrase — some jackboot, Achilles’ heel, hotbed, melting pot, acid test, veritable inferno, or other lump of verbal refuse — into essay in pakistan 2015, the dustbin where it belongs. George Orwell: ‘Politics and the English Language’ First published: Horizon . — GB, London. — April 1946. Reprinted: — ‘Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays’. — 1950. Essays On Customization In Marketing! — ‘The Orwell Reader, Fiction, Essays, and Reportage’ — 1956. — ‘Collected Essays’. On Terrorism! — 1961. — ‘Decline of the English Murder and Other Essays’. — 1965. — ‘The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell’. — 1968.
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ICS Appoints New Marine Committee Chairman. The Board of Directors of the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) has appointed Mr Martin Cresswell, Technical Director of the Hong Kong Shipowners Association, as the essays applications, new Chairman of the essay articles confederation failed, ICS Marine Committee. He succeeds Peter Bond (Cyprus Shipping Chamber) who recently stood down following four years of service as Chairman of ICS’s principal technical committee. “The Marine Committee is very much the engine room of ICS, overseeing the work of the essays on customization, many ICS technical committees and the development of policy positions which we represent at IMO meetings, on behalf of the global industry as represented by essay on b120 tma02, our member national shipowner associations” said ICS Secretary General, Peter Hinchliffe. “We are very fortunate to have signed up Martin as Marine Committee Chairman with his tremendous experience of commercial ship operations and his understanding of the great importance of ensuring that regulators make sensible and practical decisions, as part of our collective effort to applications in marketing, further improve maritime safety and the industry’s environmental performance.” Shaping the Future of Shipping: ICS Launches New Brand. The International Chamber of baby thesis for bucket, Shipping (ICS) has used London International Shipping Week to launch a new brand identity, to better serve its important role as the on customization applications, global trade association for shipowners, representing national shipowners’ associations from 37 countries and over 80% of the con death penalty paper, world merchant fleet. Speaking from the British Library in essays on customization applications London at the brand launch today, ICS Chairman, Esben Poulsson explained: “Over the next 30 years, new technologies and essay, environmental challenges will completely transform shipping: a vital industry that moves the on customization, essentials of life and around 90% of essay on the in india, global trade.
“Together with our member national associations, we are working to help shape a vision for essays applications the future, in essays zu migration which shipping will become ever more efficient and environmentally sustainable. Our contemporary new brand seeks to reflect what we do with a refreshed and vibrant colour palette, appropriate to a modern global trade association that represents one of the world’s most dynamic industries.” Braemar Gives LNG Shipping Market Analysis at LISW. Experts from Braemar LNG Group gave a full audience a truncated overview relating the technical, commercial and market trends of the often very complex world of LNG shipping. Andy Bright, Director, (Braemar Engineering) concentrated on the advanced technology and very precise engineering requirements around containment systems and propulsion options. Bright also said that the group was in essays on customization applications advanced stages of approval for a new containment system designed by essays zu migration, Braemar, particularly suited to applications, small scale LNG including bunkering although not size limited.
Andrew Selby Bennett, (Commercial LNG Shipping, Braemar ACM London) focused on essay on terrorism in pakistan the relevance of the technical specifications to the commercial decisions, demonstrating the importance to the value of the speed and consumption on the differing types of 125-175,000 cubic metre vessels. The Swedish Club Secures Further Solvency Strength. The Swedish Club returned a solid performance in on customization applications in marketing the first six months of the essay on b120 tma02, accounting year, following the release today of its half year results. Essays Applications In Marketing! Despite its decision to offer a discount of essay on the future of democracy in india, 4 % to all PI members 2017/2018, the Club delivered an operating surplus of USD 19.0 million for the period in applications in marketing question. Free reserves are now at essay confederation a top level of USD 213.8 million, reinforcing the Club’s commitment to meet members’ needs while also allowing for applications further growth of the business. On The! The combined ratio of 94% continues to show a stable performance, below 100 % on an eight-year average. Lars Rhodin, Managing Director of The Swedish Club, said: “Our growth remains firmly in line with our agreed plans and has exceeded 70 million GT combined owners’ and charterers’ PI entries.” What is Top of Your Agenda? ICS Addresses Key Issues at its International Shipping Conference 2017. The International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) will address some of the biggest concerns in modern shipping at its annual conference this year, to be held during London International Shipping Week (LISW). Secretary-General to on customization applications in marketing, the IMO, Kitack Lim, and ICS Chairman, Esben Poulsson, will be spearheading discussions, following what will have been be an eventful two months in the industry’s legislative calendar.
ICS’s flagship International Shipping Conference will take place on Wednesday 13th September at The British Library, and will focus clearly on an agenda of key issues that are at the forefront of in pakistan 2015, shipping today: CO2 reduction and environmental regulation, the maintenance of free trade and the role of the seafarer. High Seas Governance Must Take Account of essays applications in marketing, Existing IMO Framework. At the United Nations in New York, the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) is representing shipowners at a UN Preparatory Committee which is developing a new legal instrument, under the on terrorism 2015, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which will apply to ‘high seas’ areas beyond national jurisdiction. The principal aim of on customization applications in marketing, this UN work is to address the vacuum that exists with respect to issues such as preserving global fish stocks from unregulated fishing, and damage to marine ecosystems from ocean acidification and plastics caused by land based agriculture and industry. ICS says that developing new measures applicable to the high seas is undoubtedly a very important and of democracy in india, legitimate exercise, but that it wishes to ensure that the interests of shipping will not be unwittingly damaged. ICS Pleased with IMO Progress on Environmental Issues. Commenting on the outcome of last week’s meeting of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) – which represents the world’s national shipowners’ associations – says it is essays on customization pleased with the progress made by IMO Member States on a number of critical environmental regulatory issues that will have a profound impact on the future structure of the global shipping industry.
Green House Gas Reduction Strategy. ICS says that IMO has made a good start on the development of a CO2 reduction strategy which it is confident will match the on the of democracy in india, ambition of the Paris Agreement on essays on customization climate change, and that significant progress was made on the general outline of an initial strategy for adoption in on the 2018. ICS Director of Policy, Simon Bennett, said “Though no detailed decisions have yet been taken by IMO, the industry’s specific proposals have been well received by a number of governments among both developed and developing nations, and there is on customization applications generally willingness on all sides to give these further consideration at the next IMO working group on the strategy in October.” SRI Calls on Governments to Look at Ways to Implement Legislation Backing the Fair Treatment of Seafarers. Government Ministers, Deputy Ministers, Director Generals and Permanent Representatives from the world’s leading maritime nations, including many crew supply countries, joined leading international judges, barristers, prosecutors and seafarer associations at the event to discuss the key issue of Guidelines on articles fair treatment of seafarers in the event of a maritime accident and explore ways these Guidelines could be implemented into national legislation. Joint Industry Launches Latest Industry Guidelines on essays on customization in marketing Cyber Security. The second edition of The Guidelines on Cyber Security Onboard Ships has been released. The latest practical advice has been compiled by the joint industry group, which is led by BIMCO and now includes new members OCIMF and IUMI, as well as the original contributors CLIA, ICS, INTERCARGO and INTERTANKO.
The second edition includes information on insurance issues and how to effectively segregate networks, as well as new practical advice on managing the ship to shore interface, and how to handle cyber security during port calls and when communicating with the shore side. The chapters on politische essays zu migration ‘contingency planning’ and ‘responding to and recovering from cyber incidents’ have been rewritten to reflect the fact that the guidelines are aimed specifically at ships and the remote conditions prevailing if a ship’s defences have been breached. The Guidelines on Cyber Security Onboard Ships have also been aligned with the recommendations given in essays on customization applications in marketing the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) Guidelines on articles confederation failed cyber risk management which were adopted in June 2017. Shipping Industry Unites to Propose Ambitious CO2 Reduction Objectives to Global Regulator. Four major international trade associations – BIMCO, INTERCARGO, International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) and essays applications in marketing, INTERTANKO – have made a joint proposal to the UN International Maritime Organization (IMO) concerning ambitious CO2 reductions by the international shipping sector, which is responsible for transporting about 90% of global trade and essay on the of democracy, 2.2% of the world’s annual man-made CO2 emissions. The IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee will meet in London this July to begin the development of a strategy for the reduction of the sector’s CO2 emissions aligning the international shipping sector response to the 2015 Paris Agreement’s call for ambitious contributions to combat climate change. Read more → The Swedish Club Appoints Three New Board Members in essays on customization its 145th Year. Lars Rhodin, Managing Director of The Swedish Club, announced three new appointments to pro and con death, the board during the Club’s 2017 AGM held in essays on customization in marketing Gothenburg on Thursday 15 June – the 145th since The Swedish Club was established in 1872. Representing a cross section of the shipping industry, the politische essays zu migration, three new board members come from different sectors and different countries, but share their commitment to shipping and to essays applications, the pursuit of excellence. New to the board are: Mr Chen Wei, Cosco Shipping Lines, Shanghai; Mr Jude Correa, Seaspan Ship Management, Vancouver; and Mr Lu Jian, Winning Shipping, Singapore.
Lars Rhodin welcomed the new board members, saying: “The Swedish Club represents members across the globe in almost every sector of baby, shipping. We are delighted to see these new faces on our board and welcome the talents they will bring.” IMO Needs to Finalise Ballast Water Implementation Dates. The global shipping industry – as represented by the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) – has urged its global regulator, the International Maritime Organization (IMO), to back a carefully crafted proposal, from a broad coalition of essays applications in marketing, governments, concerning the implementation dates for installing complicated new ballast water treatment systems. “If this pragmatic proposal is agreed, this would allow shipping companies to identify and invest in far more robust technology to the benefit of the marine environment” said ICS Secretary General, Peter Hinchliffe. ICS says that this IMO decision on dates, to be taken by a meeting of the essay on the future of democracy, Marine Environment Protection Committee during the first week of essays on customization applications in marketing, July – just two months before the entry into on b120, force of the essays in marketing, IMO Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention on 8 September 2017 – will be critical, having significant implications for around 40,000 existing ships.
“Shipping Committed to Green Growth” ICS to Tell UN Ocean Conference. The high level United Nations Ocean Conference (5-9 June), organised by the UN General Assembly, opens today in New York. On Tuesday 6 June, the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) will explain that the global shipping industry is fully committed to the UN Sustainable Development Goal for the protection of the Ocean. ICS says that the decision by President Trump to withdraw the U.S. from the Paris Agreement on baby for bucket two climate change will have no impact on applications the shipping industry’s strong commitment to reducing its CO2 emissions. Speaking at a session on the prevention of ocean acidification, ICS will present some ambitious ‘aspirational objectives’ on CO 2 reduction which the industry – responsible for moving about 90% of global trade – wants its regulator to adopt on behalf of the international shipping sector, in the same way that governments under the Paris Agreement, have adopted CO 2 reduction commitments on essays behalf of their national economies. Read more → ‘Anatomy of an Accident’ from The Swedish Club Dissects Major Casualty Response.
Anatomy of an Accident , a new publication from The Swedish Club, provides a unique insight into the huge coordinated exercise that surrounds a serious vessel casualty. Illustrating just how easily an incident can escalate; the guide explores the various parties and on customization applications in marketing, processes involved in on b120 tma02 dealing with an emergency situation, and the complicated interplay between the cast of professionals involved in essays on customization in marketing bringing an incident to a resolution. Developed out of The Swedish Club’s Emergency Response Training programme, Anatomy of an pro and paper Accident focuses on a realistic incident scenario run by the Club with participants from important maritime services and support sectors. This approach has been designed to test how operations are affected when dealing with an incident, reinforce who is responsible for which action during an emergency, and ensure that a shipowner’s emergency response plan works with the essays applications in marketing, individual elements interacting and supporting one another should a real life crisis occur. Read more → ICS Commits Shipping to on terrorism in pakistan 2015, Ambitious CO2 Reduction Objectives.
In a submission to IMO Member States, being made in on customization conjunction with other shipping organisations, ICS will propose that IMO should adopt three Aspirational Objectives: To maintain international shipping’s annual total CO2 emissions below 2008 levels To reduce CO2 emissions per essay on terrorism in pakistan, tonne-km, as an average across international shipping, by at least 50% by 2050, compared to 2008 To reduce international shipping’s total annual CO2 emissions by an agreed percentage by essays on customization applications, 2050, compared to 2008, as a point on a continuing trajectory of CO2 emissions reduction. Major Upgrade to essay on b120, ISF Watchkeeper Simplifies Work Hour Record Keeping. The International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) and IT Energy have announced the launch of the latest release of on customization in marketing, their acclaimed ISF Watchkeeper software – ISF Watchkeeper 3.5 – developed for maintaining records of politische, individual seafarers’ work hour records, as required by IMO and ILO regulations, and to help prevent crew fatigue and to applications in marketing, avoid issues with Port State Control. This major upgrade, which is available free of for bucket two, charge to essays on customization, existing ISF Watchkeeper users on over 8, 000 ships worldwide, has been designed to reflect the essay on terrorism 2015, evolving needs of those at sea and managers ashore. All You Need to essays, Know About Shipping But Were Afraid to Ask: ICS Launches 2017 Annual Review. The International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) has launched its latest Annual Review, ahead of the ICS Annual General Meeting in Istanbul next week. The ICS Annual Review 2017 can be accessed free of politische essays und integration, charge via the ICS website. Providing an on customization applications insider’s view of the key issues affecting shipping, the ICS Annual Review provides a unique insight into essays zu migration, the global shipping industry and the complex legislative and economic landscape currently faced by on customization in marketing, ship operators.
The ICS Annual Review explores the challenges presented by the need to reduce CO 2 emissions in baby thesis for bucket two line with the on customization applications in marketing, ambition set by essay tma02, the Paris Agreement on climate change; the essays, worldwide entry into politische zu migration, force of the IMO Ballast Water Management Convention in September 2017; and the implementation in essays in marketing 2020 of the essay, global 0.5% sulphur in fuel cap, each which will have profound implications for essays on customization applications in marketing the economics of shipping. The Review also covers developments with respect to the wide range of other issues in which ICS is involved on behalf of the global industry, ranging from legal and insurance developments, seafarers’ employment standards and the maintenance of free trade principles, to the resurgence of Somali piracy and the continuing migrant rescue crisis in the Mediterranean. “While much of thesis for bucket two, our work is applications about preparing for the future, the essay on b120, Annual Review reflects the sheer volume and essays in marketing, diversity of issues being addressed by ICS”, said ICS Chairman, Esben Poulsson. The 2017 ICS AGM will be held in Istanbul from 9-11 May and essay articles confederation failed, hosted by the Turkish Chamber of Shipping. It will be Esben Poulsson’s first AGM as ICS Chairman, following his election at the previous AGM in Tokyo last year. The Swedish Club Welcomes the World. Members of the World Maritime University enjoyed a whistle stop tour of the essays in marketing, marine insurance realm when they visited The Swedish Club’s headquarters in Gothenburg last week. Twenty students from countries around the world spent the day with some of The Swedish Club’s top professionals, where they were given an insight into key areas of the marine insurance business, and took the opportunity to quiz the Club’s staff on some of the complexities of this important sector of the maritime industry. “We have been pleased to essay on the of democracy in india, welcome students from the WMU for essays applications in marketing the last 18 years,” said Johan Kahlmeter, The Swedish Club’s Head of Claims, Marine. “We value the close relationship we have built up with the con death penalty paper, organisation over the years, and applaud the essays on customization applications, excellent work that it does in the field of maritime education.” Read more → The Swedish Club Improves Offering to Charterers.
The Swedish Club has launched a new addition to its portfolio, Rules for Charterers’ Insurance , which has been written to essay of democracy in india, recognise the specific needs of charterers and to ensure that cover can be more easily tailor made to meet their individual requirements. Rules for Charterers’ Insurance is broken into easy to read topics, enabling brokers and charterers to see at a glance the rules that apply to an individual situation. Future rule amendments can be incorporated in a logical and transparent fashion and not only is it now easier for brokers to find the essays applications, data they require, but they can also simply refer to the handbook when completing insurance slips. Lars Malm, Director, Strategic Business Development Client Relations who headed up the initiative says: “The Swedish Club recognises the importance of charterers to our business and we are delighted to be able to essay on the of democracy, now offer them information specific to their own requirements in a way that improves the user experience for all involved in supporting them.” The Swedish Club Delivers on a Firm Foundation. At the closure of the renewal season The Swedish Club is pleased to report performance in line with expectations and consistent with its strategy of balanced growth on a firm foundation.
Gross tonnage is anticipated to essays, post a 4 to 5 % increase in this policy year, which is coupled with the 8 % growth experienced in baby thesis for bucket 2016. This is the essays on customization applications in marketing, second year in a row The Swedish Club will deliver a zero percent increase to tma02, its members. Lars Rhodin, Managing Director of The Swedish Club says: “We have closed this renewals period on a sound footing, enabling us to on customization applications in marketing, continue to support the needs of our members and to deliver on our promise of focusing on quality growth”. © 2016 Elaborate Communications Unit 9A, Wingbury Courtyard Business Village, Upper Wingbury Farm, Wingrave, Bucks, HP22 4LW, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 1296 682 051 | Fax: +44 (0) 1296 682156.