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anthropolgy essay UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. My Paper? ANT. 348Y THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF HEALTH. NOTES: PLEASE READ CAREFULLY: 1. Choose a topic from the list below and write an essay of metal courses, maximum length 15 pages [double- spaced, 12 point type]. Deadline, Wednesday, March 22, 2006.
A schedule of late penalties will be posted. These topics are drawn from both the Fall and the Winter lecture materials. 2. Be sure to consult the Anthropology Department Essay style sheet in citing references or adopt the style of the American Anthropologist. Footnotes should not be used for references. 3. No later than Wednesday Nov. 30, a one page outline will be due setting out your topic and five-ten [5-10] references. Marks will be assigned for this outline. 4. Rewrite My Paper? In order to distribute the topics equitably, and ensure that books are available for intelligence essay, all, a maximum of four  students will be allowed to pursue an individual topic. 5. Approval will be on a first-come first-served basis.
Please make your choices known by submitting on my paper, a full sheet of paper (not a scrap) your name and the date and the number and short title of the topic you have chosen. Each student should put down a first, second, and third choice. 6. These should be handed in during class to Monir on or before Wednesday Nov. 9th. Students will be notified of approved topics within a week (i.e. by college the week of rewrite my paper, Nov. 16th). 7. Fellowships Dissertation? Students are welcome to consult Prof. Lee during office hours (Wednesdays 2-4, Room 1049 SSH) for additional reference material on specific essay topics.
8. In every essay, students should make a careful assessment of your sources, especially if they are non-scholarly, mainstream media, i.e. accounts by participants in the events. Sources need to be scrutinized for biases before they can be utilized in rewrite my paper, a scholarly essay. Fellowships? Not all biased sources are necessarily useless. On the contrary they may be more useful after their bias is acknowledged and my paper, taken into account. 8. Here is a list of journal resources which contain articles on many of the topics below: -Social Science and Medicine. -Medical Anthropology Quarterly. -Health Transition Review. -Health Care for Women International. -Health Policy and Planning.
-Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry. -Culture, Health and Sexuality. -Culture and Medicine. 1. Adult onset diabetes is a major health problem in aboriginal populations in Canada and the U.S. Critically review the literature on this problem and discuss how recent biocultural and cultural constructionist medical anthropology has attempted to understand the historical and social context of the disease and treatment modalities. 2. Average Sat Score Without Essay? Medical Pluralism. Pick a country or a subnational group and do a review of the traditional and rewrite, alternative medical/healing systems coexisting with biomedicine. In what ways do these alternative medical systems support and reinforce or contradict and undermine the so-called #8220;modern,western biomedicine#8221;?
Joseph Bastien#8217;s (1992) offers one possible model for nyu gsas dissertation, this essay, but there are many others. 3. My Paper? Health and the Neolithic. Recent archaeology and physical anthropology have made great strides in analyzing the health and nutritional status of prehistoric peoples. Apply some of these recent findings to support or refute on medical grounds, Jared Diamond#8217;s often-quoted statement that: #8220;The adoption of fellowships, agriculture, supposedly our most decisive step toward a better life, was in many ways a catastrophe from which we have never recovered.#8221; You may draw on the detailed work by George Armelagos, Mark N. Cohen, Gillian Bentley and others on the physical and health consequences of the transition to the Neolithic. 4. Boyd Eaton, Marjorie Shostak and Melvin Konner have written The Paleolithic Prescription, a book which documents hunter-gatherer nutrition, lifestyle, and disease burden. Drawing on your survey/review of my paper, critical reactions to the work, write an nurse appreciation of The Paleolithic Prescription that addresses both the strong and weak points of the my paper, book.
5-9. Critical Medical Anthropology (CMA) attempts to place health and illness within the larger context of political economy, history and society. It is the sat score without, view of CMA that illness is not just a biological condition but needs to be understood on the level of the social body and the body politic as well as the individual body. Drawing on the works of the researchers mentioned as well as other works, write a critical essay on the work of one of the following: 5. Homelessness - Ida Susser, Rae Bridgman, Dara Culhane. 6. Rewrite? Smoking - Mark Nichter, Peter Pringle, or Kenyon Stebbins.
7. Alcohol - Mac Marshall, Merrill Singer, Frederick Engels, the Alcoholics Anonymous movement. Websites College? 8. Illegal Drugs - Phillippe Bourgois, Lester Grinspon, Narconon, Gordon Roe. Rewrite My Paper? 9. Third World Poverty - Nancy Scheper-Hughes, 10. Alcoholics Anonymous - Discuss the founding, history, and mode of operation of this unusual experiment in non-medical, non-commercial addiction rehabilitation. Review the literature on AA and its sister organizations such as Al-Anon and Narconon focussing on ethnographic accounts where possible. What features set these organizations apart from websites, others working in the same field? What strengths have enabled AA to successfully resist encroachments by the capitalist system, or has it? 11-18.
AIDS in Africa. Over 70 per cent of all the world#8217;s AIDS cases are found in sub-Saharan Africa. Consulting various sources (printed and on-line), document the incidence rates, and explore their epidemiological profile regarding gender, race, class, and sexual preference. My Paper? You may choose to focus on are animals essay, a single country or include a group of countries. Drawing on the work of Catherine Campbell, Ezekiel Kalipeni, John Caldwell, Douglas Webb, Ida Susser, Margaret Bentley, Brooke Schoepf, Douglas Feldman, Edward Green, Tony Barnett, Alan Whiteside, Robert Lorway, and my paper, others, write an essay on one of the average without essay, following topics: 11. The state of ARV rollout in Africa; the role of the Treatment Action Campaign in South Africa.
12. Mother to child transmission, (MTCT) including the issue of breastfeeding and short-course Nevirapine ARV Therapy. 13. How are African universities and their student bodies responding to the AIDS crisis? 14. Commercial sex workers (CSW) and rewrite, their role in the AIDS epidemic. Research Paper Pediatric? 15. How did Uganda manage to reverse the rate of HIV infection?
16. Gender power and AIDS; #8220;Dry Sex#8221; and the acceptability and use of the female condom. Or the role of men#8217;s movements in rewrite my paper, addressing AIDS. 17. Positive Living: PLWAs overcoming AIDS stigma as a force for intelligence essay, change.
18. Sexual Diversity in rewrite, Africa: Is it being taken into account in the fight against intelligence, AIDS? 19-30. Environmental health and rewrite, political ecology are two of the fastest growing fields in medical anthropology. Although millions of people are deeply affected by chemical and nyu gsas fellowships dissertation, radiological wastes in the air, water and soils daily, certain case studies stand out as examples of my paper, where the environmental crisis is most acute. Choose an issue and/or a specific event and write a critical essay focusing on the medical evidence and social/political response of people and communities in such famous case studies as: 19. Average Sat Score Without Essay? The work of Elizabeth Gillette on rewrite my paper, agricultural chemical (over)use in Mexico and its effects on young children, 20. Canada#8217;s Love Canal: the Sydney N.S.
Frederick St. Average Without? tar ponds, 21. St. George Utah and Monument Valley, a cancer hot spot downwind from the U.S. Nevada atomic test sites (what killed the rewrite, Marlboro Man? Smoking or all those photo-shoots in average, radioactive territory?) 22. the Arctic after Chernobyl, eg. Saami reindeer herders, Inuit, and other northern dwellers.
23. Cancer rates in Russia after Chernobyl. 24. Depleted Uranium (DU) used both in the Gulf War and in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. 25. The next Love Canal crisis: the environmental health disaster in the town of Mission, Texas on my paper, the U.S.-Mexican border. 26. Seveso, Italy, major release of dioxin from factory explosion. 27. Bhopal, Union Carbide disaster, killing 3-8000 people.
28. Walkerton, Ontario, E. coli outbreak., seven deaths, 2000 sick . 29. Mercury poisoning in Minimata Japan, and/or Grassy Narrows, Ontario. Courses? 30. Breast cancer - Zillah Eisenstein, Sandra Steingraber. 31. Critical Epidemiologists have done pioneering studies of the relationship between health and socioeconomic status. In the famous Whitehall Study of a British government ministry--, middle managers were found to have significantly better health and longer life expectancy than lower level clerks. However, by far the best health and rewrite, longest life expectancy was enjoyed by heads of departments and top officials in the Ministry. Discuss the method, results, and interpretations of this study. 32.
Health and Income Differences and the #8220;Health Olympics.#8221;. Drawing on the work of Stephen Bezruchka, Clyde Hertzman, and others, examine the recent work in critical epidemiology which links levels of health and well-being to working courses socio-economic status. Discuss how an indicator of wealth differences -- such as the Gini coefficient-- significantly correlates with health status. My Paper? 33-37. Watchdogs and Whistleblowers: What#8217;s Wrong with Big Pharma. Research Paper Pediatric? Transnational pharmaceutical companies are among the largest corporations in the world. There is a growing critical literature exploring the ethical, political, and rewrite my paper, economic dimensions of the drug industry and its complex relations with the medical profession, consumers, and governments. Research Paper Pediatric? Critics argue that company policies and practices are driven more by profits than public health. This largely closed corporate world may be illuminated by my paper government watchdogs or internal whistleblowers. Paper Nurse? Drawing on the recent writings of my paper, Marcial Angell, Richard Horton, and essay, others, review alleged questionable practices or wrongdoing. Present a balanced picture of the controversy, but do not refrain from drawing your own conclusions.
You may build your essay around one of the following sources: 33. Abramson, John 2004. Overdosed America: The Broken Promise of American Medicine. New York: Harper-Collins. 34. My Paper? Angell, Marcia 2004. The Truth about the Drug Companies: How they Deceive us and What to do about it. New York: Random House. Intelligence Essay? 35. Hadler, Nortin 2004. The Last Well Person: How to Stay Well Despite the Health Care System.
Montreal: McGill-Queens Press. 36. Krimsky, Sheldon 2003. Science in the Private Interest: Hast the my paper, Lure of Profits. Corrupted Biomedical Research?. Lanham MD: Rowan and are animals, Littlefield. 37. Moynihan, Raymond and Alan Cassels 2005. Selling Sickness: How the World#8217;s Biggest Pharmaceutical Companies are Turning Us all into Patients.
Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre. 38-44. Rewrite My Paper? Vioxx and other marketed drugs: Examine a specific drug and document the way it was discovered, tested, and brought to market and then its subsequent history of adverse drug reactions, the company#8217;s attempts to keep it on the market, and its eventual withdrawl or serious limitation of its use. Intelligence? Discuss any lawsuits that may be pending around the drug under scrutiny. Pick a drug from the following list: 39. Statins (see Duane Graveline M.D. 2004. Statin Drug Side Effects and the Misguided War on Cholesterol.) 40. Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) 44. Rewrite? Another drug of working courses, your choosing (check with Prof.
Lee). My Paper? 45-50. Medicalization. One of the major trends in contemporary society is the bringing under the domain of biomedicine areas of life and human behavior which had formerly been considered as lying outside the purview of medicine. Examples, often-cited, of thesis, medicalization include such areas as: 45) childbirth, (the replacement of midwives by obstetricians and back to midwives) 46) hyperactivity in children, (the story of rewrite my paper, Ritalin) 47) stress management, (yoga and meditation in on project management system, doctors#8217; offices) 48) substance abuse, drugs and alcohol (Philippe Bourgois)
49) the treatment of emotional distress and depression, (a look at the DSM and the research of David Healey). 50) fibromyalgia (where medicalization is resisted by the insurance companies. My Paper? 51) another example of your choosing (but check with Professor Lee first). Choose one of these areas of life and write an essay exploring the way an problem was dealt with before it was medicalized, and the process by which it became part of medical practice. You should rely primarily on library sources but if feasible, you could augment these by nyu gsas fellowships interviews with practitioners. 52. Self-Healing and the Placebo Effect. What role does patient attitude and outlook play in the chances of recovery from major diseases? Using Daniel Moerman#8217;s book Meaning Medicine and the Placebo Effect (2002) and Bernie Siegel#8217;s Love, Medicine and Miracles (1986) (and other sources) as starting points, explore the research that tests for rewrite, the strength of the placebo or #8220;nocebo#8221; effect on patients responding to the challenges of cancers or other life-threatening conditions. Make use of on project management system, both statistical studies and first-person accounts.
What do these studies tell us about the my paper, boundaries between mind and body and between the known and the unknown in medical research. 53-56.. Traditional Healers and Western Medicine. What is the nature of the thesis on project management, relationship between traditional healers and biomedical services in non-Western countries? Choose a particular country and investigate whether government health services have tried to embrace traditional healers or tried to eradicate them? Why? (Edward Green, Gilles Bibeau). Rewrite My Paper? 53.
A case study from East Asia. 54. A case study from South Asia. 55. A case study from Africa. 56. A case study from websites college, Latin America or the my paper, Caribbean. 57. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM).
What forms of courses, alternative therapies exist in rewrite, North America. Concentrate on one or two #8220;medical#8221; practices and explore their relationship with conventional biomedicine. How does usage vary with age, ethnicity, gender or class of the clientele? What social and political forces appear to be at work in fellowships dissertation, the continuing expansion of rewrite my paper, CAM? 58-61. Cross-cultural Psychiatry.
One interest of cross-cultural psychiatry is to assess whether the incidence of metal courses, various mental health problems are the same from place to rewrite place. There are certain potential problems with this project, however. For example, mental health conditions may express themselves differently in different cultural areas. Similarly, while some cultures may consider deviations from #8220;normal#8221; behavior problematic, others may interpret them as signs of superior access to management the spirit world or the divine. Choose one of the rewrite, mental health conditions and find out what research has been done cross-culturally. Essay? Are the rates of depression (or schizophrenia) similar cross-culturally? What are the rewrite my paper, problems with trying to make cultural comparisons in mental health? 58.
Depression (Arthur Kleinman, Byron Good, A. Marsella) 59. To Buy? Schizophrenia (J. Jenkins, Nancy Scheper-Hughes, A. Kleinman, M. Nichter) 60. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (Allan Young) 61. Suicide (Lawrence Kirmayer) 62. Organ Donations. When you get a driver#8217;s license you are asked whether you want to be an organ donor if you die, but there is much recent evidence to suggest that there is an international market in human organs, sometimes called #8220;organ trafficking.#8221; Where is this occurring, why, and how has this market evolved? (N. Scheper-Hughes; Margaret Lock; Monir Moniruzzaman).
63. Eating Disorders. North America has relatively high rates of eating disorders, particularly among young, white women. Some anthropologists have even asserted that this can be considered a culture-bound syndrome since it is not found elsewhere. What is an rewrite eating disorder? What are theories about the intelligence essay, causes? Review the ethnographic evidence. Rewrite My Paper? (S.
Bordo). 64. Obesity and Overconsumption. North America also has very high rates of obesity and over-weight. Find documentary evidence for trends in weight and metal working courses, their health consequences. Are some segments of the population affected more than others? Why is America (and Canada) getting so fat? 65. Weight-Watchers is an internationally successful corporation that has revolutionized the field of weight-loss.
It has many imitators. It represents an interesting amalgam of the peer support principles behind Alcoholics Anonymous and the slick business marketing methods from the corporate world. Using the ethnographic method make a study of Weight-Watchers or another company based on rewrite my paper, similar business model addressing the following areas: - origins and history. - its public persona and modus operandi. - its corporate persona and management history. - the principles of its weight-loss methods. - results; does it work? - evidence from clinical trials. Does Weight-Watchers (or another case study chosen) provide a model for management that successfully subverts medicalization? Does it work?
66-67. Indian and Chinese Medicine. India and China are two areas of the world that have their own very elaborate and average sat score essay, systematic systems of thought and practice about illness and healing. Choose India (#66) or China (#67) and investigate: - What is the understanding of the body? - What is the nosology (disease classification system)? - How is health conceptualized? Is it the absence of the disease or something more holistic? - What are the various kinds of treatments? - How does it interface with conventional biomedicine?
68. The Politics Of Health Activism. Organizations that focus on specific diseases, conditions or healthcare issues present a wide spectrum of political positions. The observer can arrange the various organizations along a continuum of forms of political engagement. Following closely the outline in the health activism assignment from October 2005, write a 12-15 page essay on a group or groups of health activists using the A-B-C framework. Rewrite My Paper? 1. Choose a disease or condition and make an inventory of are animals intelligence essay, organizations that focus on that disease. By consulting the information available on their websites see if you can arrange them along a continuum from Group A to Group B to Group C. Print home pages from all groups and include these in the assignment. Provide the mission statement, major activities, and main sources of funding.
2. Find an organization from Group C and do a more in-depth study of it, including its founding, subsequent history, as well as its mission statement, main activities and sources of funding. Be precise about the nature of the group#8217;s critiques of a) big pharma, b) mainstream medicine, c) government policies and my paper, d) the organizations in its field, from Group A and B. Dissertation? Include webpages and rewrite, pamphlets and brochures. Note: You may do BOTH the fall alternate assignment AND the Winter essay or one or the other.
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Reservation System in India: Concept, Arguments and Conclusions. Reservation System in India: Concept, Arguments and Conclusions! Reservation in common terms refers to an act of reserving, keeping back or withholding. Reservation in the Indian Context : Reservation in Indian law is a form of affirmative action whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the public sector units, union and state civil services, union and state government departments and in all public and rewrite, private educational institutions, except in the religious/ linguistic minority educational institutions, for the socially and essay, educationally backward communities and the Scheduled Castes and Tribes who are inadequately represented in these services and institutions. The reservation policy is also extended for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes for representation in the Parliament of India. The underlying theory for the provision of reservation by the state is the under-representation of the identifiable groups as a legacy of the Indian caste system. After India gained independence, the Constitution of India listed some erstwhile groups as Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST). The framers of the Constitution believed that, due to the caste system, SCs and the STs were historically oppressed and rewrite my paper, denied respect and equal opportunity in Indian society and were thus under-represented in nation-building activities. The Constitution laid down 15% and 7.5% of vacancies to research paper nurse government aided educational institutes and for jobs in the government/public sector, as reserved quota for the SC and ST candidates respectively for a period of rewrite my paper, five years, after which the situation was to be reviewed.
After introducing the intelligence essay, provision for reservation once, it got related to vote bank politics and the following governments and the Indian Parliament routinely extended this period, without any free and fair revisions. Later, reservations were introduced for other sections as well. The Supreme Court ruling that reservations cannot exceed 50% (which it judged would violate equal access guaranteed by the Constitution) has put a cap on reservations. The central government of my paper, India reserves 27% of research nurse, higher education, and individual states may legislate further reservations. Reservation in most states is at 50%, but certain Indian states like Rajasthan have proposed a 68% reservation that includes a 14% reservation for forward castes in services and education. However, there are states laws that exceed this 50% limit and these are under litigation in the Supreme Court. Rewrite My Paper. For example, the caste-based reservation fraction stands at 69% and is applicable to about 87% of the population in websites college papers, the state of Tamil Nadu. Arguments Offered By Supporters of Reservation : a. My Paper. Reservations are a political necessity in nyu gsas, India. b. Although Reservation schemes do undermine the quality of education but still Affirmative Action has helped many if not everyone from under-privileged and/or under-represented communities to rewrite my paper grow and occupy top positions in the world’s leading industries.
c. Although Reservation schemes do undermine the quality, they are needed to provide social justice to the most marginalized and underprivileged which is their human right. d. Meritocracy is meaningless without equality. First all people must be brought to the same level, whether it elevates a section or decelerates another, regardless of merit. e. Reservations have only slowed down the process of “Forward becoming richer and backward becoming poorer”. Arguments Offered by Anti-Reservationists : a. Nyu Gsas Fellowships. Intellectuals and Philanthropists agree that reservations will divide India Reservation is similar to internal partition because in addition to being a form of ethnic discrimination, it also builds walls against rewrite my paper, inter-caste and sat score without, inter-faith marriages. Vast majority of voters are discriminating against a newly created minority. b. Reservations are the biggest enemy of meritocracy. By offering reservation through relaxed entry criteria, we are fuelling inflation of moderate credentials as opposed to the promotion of merit based education system, which is the foundation of many progressive countries. Meritocracy should not be polluted by injecting relaxation of entry barriers, rather should be encouraged by offering financial aids to the underprivileged although deserving candidates only. My Paper. Today the NTs and IIMs hold a high esteem in the global scenario due to their conservation of merit. c. Caste Based Reservation only management, perpetuates the notion of caste in rewrite, society, rather than weakening it as a factor of nyu gsas, social consideration, as envisaged by the constitution.
Reservation is a tool to meet narrow political ends. d. Affirmative Action can be provided at rewrite a more comprehensive level taking into account various factors of exclusion such as caste, economic conditions, gender, kind of schooling received etc. A comprehensive scheme of Affirmative Action would be more beneficial than reservations in addressing concerns of social justice. e. Allocating quotas is a form of discrimination which is contrary to the right to equality. f. There is great confusion in average, the “pro-reservation camp”. Rewrite My Paper. While they clamour for thesis on project management system 33% reservation for my paper women in parliament and state legislatures [and do not accept caste quotas as part of women’s quotas], they do not want special consideration for women in quotas in higher education.
This is without essay implicit acceptance of the fact that there are multiple factors of exclusion and rewrite, discrimination at work in society. g. The policy of courses, reservation has never been subject to rewrite a widespread social or political audit. Before extending reservation to working courses more groups, the entire policy needs to be properly examined, and rewrite, its benefits over a span of nearly 60 years have to be gauged. h. Poor people from “forward castes” do not have any social or economical advantage over rich people from nurse, backward caste. i. Combination of factors like Wealth, Income, and Occupation etc will help to identify real needy people. Most often, only the economically sound people make use of most of the seats reserved for “backward” castes, thus making the aim a total failure. j. There is fear that reservation once introduced will never be withdrawn even if there is a proof for upliftment of backward classes, due to rewrite political issues. For example, in Tamil Nadu, forward castes were able to secure only 3% of nyu gsas, total seats (and 9% in Open Competition) in professional institutions at Undergraduate level as against rewrite, their population percentage of 13%. This is a clear case of reverse discrimination. k. Many cite the are animals, Mandal Commission report while supporting the rewrite, idea of reservations.
According to paper pediatric the Mandal commission, 52% of the Indians belong to OBC category, while according to National Sample Survey 1999-2000, this figure is only 36% (32% excluding Muslim OBCs). l. This policy of the government has already caused increase in brain drain and may aggravate further. Under graduates and graduates will start moving to foreign universities for higher education. Committees and Commissions on the Issue of Reservation : a. 1882 – Hunter Commission was appointed. Mahatma Jyotirao Phule made a demand of free and compulsory education for all along with proportionate reservation/representation in government jobs.
b. 1953-Kalelkar Commission was established to assess the situation of the socially and educationally backward class. The report was accepted as far as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes were concerned. The recommendations for OBC’s were rejected. c. 1979-Mandal Commission was established to assess the situation of the socially and educationally backward. The commission didn’t have exact figures for my paper a sub-caste, known as the Other Backward Class (OBC), and used the research pediatric nurse, 1930 census data, further classifying 1,257 communities as backward, to estimate the OBC population at 52%.ln 1980, the commission submitted a report, and recommended changes to the existing quotas, increasing them from my paper, 22% to 49.5%.ln 1990, the thesis on project management system, Mandal commission recommendations were implemented in Government Jobs by Vishwanath Pratap Singh.
Student Organisations launched nationwide agitations. Rajiv Goswami, a Delhi university student attempted self-immolation. Many students followed suit. d. 2003- The Sachar Committee headed by Justice Rajinder Sachar, and including Sayyid Hamid, Dr. Rewrite. T.K. Ooman, M.A. Basith, Dr.Akhtar Majeed, Dr.Abu Saleh Shariff and Dr.Rakesh Basant was appointed for preparation of a report on the social, economic and educational status of the Muslim community of India. Dr.Syed Zafar Mahmood was the civil servant appointed by the PM as Officer on Special Duty to the Committee. The committee submitted its report in the year 2006. Implementation of Sachar Committee Recommendations: Marching Towards ‘Inclusive Growth’: Welfare of Minorities, specially of the underprivileged section of them, has been put high on are animals intelligence essay the agenda of the UPA Government ever since it adopted ‘inclusive growth’ as its guiding principle of governance.
Otherwise too, in every meaningful democracy, it’s the duty of the rewrite, state, and as a corollary, responsibility of the majority community to ensure the are animals intelligence, welfare of minorities so that all sections of the society feel proud to be part of the democratic setup and thus contribute their best to rewrite the development of the nation. Specially in our historical context: where all communities and sections of people had marched shoulder to shoulder and laid down their lives in the War of Independence, the concept of ‘Inclusive Growth’ becomes sine qua non for the roadmap of development and progress. It was in this context that the Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh, had appointed in average sat score without essay, March 2005 a High Level Committee under the Chairmanship of Justice Rajindar Sachar to prepare a report on social, economic and educational status of the Muslim Community of India. This study was necessary because till then there was no authentic information on the social, economic and educational backwardness, of this community, thereby hampering proper formulation and implementation of specific policies, interventions and programmes to rewrite my paper address the issues relating to its socio-economic backwardness.
This 7-member High Level Committee, popularly known as Sachar Committee, gave its report in November 2006 – and it clearly found that the Muslim community was really “seriously lagging behind in terms of most of the without, human development indicators.” The Government immediately sensed the gravity of the problem and started working on the follow-up action in right earnest. Of the 76 recommendations of the Committee, 72 were accepted. Ministry of Minority Affairs being the Nodal Ministry for examining these recommendations. And in less than a year, i.e., on 31 August, 2007 a statement on the follow-up action taken on the recommendations of the Sachar Committee was laid in both Houses of Parliament. The progress of rewrite my paper, implementation is management being reviewed regularly. Ever since the Government has been taking regular steps towards implementation of major recommendations of the Sachar Committee. Rewrite My Paper. Education being the most powerful means of socioeconomic transformation, a multi-pronged strategy to address the thesis system, educational backwardness of the Muslim community, as brought out by the Sachar Committee, has been adopted. The Madrasa modernization programme has been revised to rewrite my paper make it more attractive by providing better salary to teachers, increased assistance for books, teaching aids and computers, and introduction of vocational subjects, etc. This scheme, now known as Quality Improvement in Madrasa Education, has been launched by websites to buy college, the Ministry of Human Resource Development. A new centrally sponsored scheme of financial assistance for Infrastructure Development of Privately Managed Elementary/Secondary/Senior Secondary schools set up for minorities has been launched.
National Council of Educational Research and rewrite, Training (NCERT) has prepared text books for all classes in the light of the National Curriculum Framework-2005. Thirteen universities have been provided Rs.40 lakh each for starting centers for studying social exclusion and dissertation, inclusive policy for minorities and scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Under the Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya scheme (KGBV), criteria of educational backward blocks has been revised with effect from 1st April 2008 to cover blocks with less than 30% rural female literacy and in rewrite my paper, urban areas with less than national average of female literacy 53.67 % (Census 2001). Universalization of access to quality education at secondary stage (SUCCESS) has been approved. Setting up of new Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSSs) is being incorporated in the revised schemes by the Ministry of working, Human Resource Development. Rewrite My Paper. Provision of more girls’ hostels in colleges and universities in minority concentration districts/blocks is intelligence essay proposed under the existing University Grants Commission scheme of the Ministry of HRD. Three scholarship schemes for minority communities viz., Pre-Matric, Post-Matric and Merit- cum-Means were launched and 6.89 lakh scholarships were awarded to rewrite students belonging to minority communities in 2008-09. The corpus of Maulana Azad Education Foundation, which stood at Rs.
100 crores, was doubled to Rs. 200 crores in December, 2006. The corpus was increased by Rs. 50 crores in 2007-08 and by Rs. 60 crore in 2008-09. A budget provision of nyu gsas, Rs.115 crore has been made in my paper, 2009-10. A revised Coaching and websites, Allied scheme was launched and rewrite, 5522 candidates belonging to minority communities were provided assistance in 2008-09.
The Multi-sectoral Development Programme was launched in identified minority concentration districts in 2008-09. Plans of 47 Minority Concentration Districts (MCDs) in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Manipur, Bihar, Meghalaya, Jharkhand, Andaman Nicobar Islands and Orissa were approved and Rs.270.85 crores were released in 2008-09. Dissertation. In the current Financial Year. Plans of rewrite my paper, more than a dozen more MCDs have been approved till date. Intelligence. An inter-ministerial Task Force constituted to devise an appropriate strategy and action plan for developing 338 identified towns, having substantial minority population, rapidly in a holistic manner submitted its report on 8th November, 2007. The concerned Ministries/Departments have been advised to give priority towards implementation of my paper, their schemes in 338 towns. Economic factor being an important tool in the upliftment of a community, all public sector banks have been directed to open more branches in districts having a substantial minority population. In 2007-08, 523 branches were opened in sat score without essay, such districts.
In 2008-09, 524 new branches were opened. Reserve Bank of India revised its Master Circular on 5th July, 2007 on rewrite my paper priority sector lending for papers improving credit facilities to minority communities. Rs 82864 crore were provided to minorities under priority sector lending during 2008-09. District Consultative Committees (DCCs) of lead banks have been directed to regularly monitor disposal and rejection of loan applications from minorities. The Government has accorded ‘in principle’ approval for restructuring of my paper, National. Minorities Development and Finance Corporation: A National Data Bank, to compile data on the various socio-economic and are animals essay, basic amenities parameters for socio-religious communities, has been set up in the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. An autonomous Assessment Monitoring Authority (AMA), to analyse data collected for taking appropriate and corrective policy decisions, has been set up in the Planning Commission.
A training module has been developed by the Indian Institute of Public Administration, for sensitization of government officials. The module has been sent to the Central/ State Training Institutes for implementation. Lai Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA) has prepared a module for sensitization of organized civil services and it has been incorporated in their training programmes. Under Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and my paper, Medium Towns (UIDSSMT), additional central assistance of Rs 1602.20 crore has been sanctioned for 69 towns having substantial minority population, out of which Rs.659.37 crore was released in 2008-09. A High Level Committee, set up to review the Delimitation Act, has considered the concerns expressed in the Sachar Committee report and submitted its report. Guidelines on Communal Harmony have been issued by to buy college papers, the Ministry of Home Affairs.
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This has been processed, along with the report of the rewrite, expert group on diversity index, as per the approved modalities. To meet the ever growing need for ameliorating the condition of minorities, and Muslim community in particular, the Annual Plan allocation for the Ministry of research paper pediatric, Minority Affair is has been increased substantially to rewrite Rs 1,740 crore for research paper nurse the year 2009-10. The issue of reservation has remained a cause of disagreement between the reserved and my paper, the non- reserved sections of the society. While the unreserved segments, keep on opposing the provision, the neediest sections from thesis on project system, within the reserved segments are hardly aware about how to get benefited from the provision or even whether there are such provisions. On the contrary, the creamy layer among the same segment is enjoying special privileges in my paper, the name of reservation and political factions are supporting them for vote banks. Reservation is no doubt good, as far as it is nyu gsas dissertation a method of appropriate positive discrimination for the benefit of the downtrodden and economically backward Sections o, the society but when it tends to harm the society and ensures privileges for some at the cost of rewrite my paper, others for narrow political ends, as it is in the present form, it should be done away with, as soon possible. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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amcas ap coursework AMCAS has special designations for some courses. If applicable, assign one or more special course types by rewrite my paper, checking the corresponding check box. Advanced Placement (AP) To claim AP credit, the credit hours must be listed on research paper pediatric nurse your transcript. AP courses should be entered under the term in which the college credit was initially granted. If no term is designated include with freshman coursework. Include AP credit courses only once (indicating AP under the Course Type heading), even though AP credit for the same subject may have been awarded by more than one institution. AP courses can be assigned under the institution awarding the my paper, most credit, but cannot be listed under all the without, institutions that may have awarded credit. If AP credits appear in one block on the transcript, distribute the credit equally among the AP exams taken. University of Southern California awards 9 credits for 3 AP exams. Rewrite! On the official transcript this credit appears as 9 credits for AP exams, with no indication of on project system what each exam was.
On the AMCAS application, enter each exam as an rewrite, individual course and distribute the credit appropriately, not to exceed the total amount of credits earned. If the on project management system, transcript from the rewrite, college awarding AP credit does not list actual course names, enter the subject area for which credit has been earned (e.g., AP Credit: English) as the Course Name. Websites Papers! If the following course types appear on your official transcript, they should be indicated as AP on rewrite the AMCAS application even if they technically are not Advanced Placement. Sat Score Essay! Any course you attended without attempting to earn credit, either formally or informally. If you officially registered for the course, it is usually listed on the transcript with a special symbol or notation. No credit hours or AMCAS grade will be assigned. You can earn CLEP credit by passing an rewrite my paper, examination offered by are animals essay, the College Level Examination Program (CLEP), or through USAFI/DANTES. To claim credit in the CLEP category, the credit hours must be listed on your transcript.
You can list your CLEP credit only once, even though credit may have been awarded by more than one institution. This transferred credit can be credited to rewrite, the institution granting the most CLEP credit, but cannot be credited to all the schools that may have accepted the credit. Use this Course Type designation for any courses you are currently taking or expect to take before entering medical school. Listing these courses is especially important if you have not yet completed medical school prerequisites. No AMCAS grade will be assigned. These entries are not binding or required, but are intended to give the medical schools an indication of are animals intelligence what courses you expect to complete before matriculation. Current/future courses do not have to rewrite my paper, appear on a transcript to be entered in average sat score coursework listing. My Paper! AMCAS will not add, remove, or modify current/future courses after the metal courses, application is submitted. If this information changes, please contact your medical schools directly.
If current/future grades are entered, but not listed on the official transcript at the time of verification, they will not be included in the AMCAS GPA. Likewise, if grades are not entered, at rewrite the time of verification appear on websites to buy papers the official transcript on file at AMCAS, they will be included in the AMCAS GPA. Any single course that officially takes more than one term to complete before the final grade and credit hours are awarded (e.g., research, thesis, and rewrite my paper dissertation credits). Are Animals Essay! Deferred Grade coursework is not the same as Repeat, Incomplete, or sequential levels of a subject (e.g., Spanish I, Spanish II, etc.) with final grades awarded at each level. Make a separate entry for each term: · Use Deferred Grade for each entry for which there is no final grade. No AMCAS grade will be assigned. Rewrite My Paper! · Do NOT use the Deferred Grade type for the entry that includes the final grade.
Do NOT assign Exempt to management, courses for which credit was awarded . No credit hours or AMCAS grade will be assigned. If the institution has granted credits, use Advanced Placement (AP) or CLEP. My Paper! Any course that you were not required taking because you had: · Previously completed courses. · Passed a departmental exam. Any course attempted through an honors program or section. Average Sat Score! A course is considered incomplete if the my paper, work required for it was not completed within the appropriate time limit. If the Incomplete is unresolved, no AMCAS grade will be assigned; however, if the Incomplete is resolved, an AMCAS grade must be assigned.
Select Incomplete even if: · A grade has been ultimately assigned, or. · There is no notation indicating incomplete on the official transcript. Many schools will assign an IF or F grade if the coursework is not completed within a given time limit. If attempted credit hours are listed on the official transcript or can be determined by paper nurse, AMCAS, this F will be included in your AMCAS GPA. International Baccalaureate (IB) To claim IB credit, the my paper, credit hours must be listed on your transcript. Include IB credit courses only once (indicating IB under the Course Type heading), even though IB credit for average sat score without the same subject may have been awarded by my paper, more than one institution. IB courses can be assigned under the institution awarding the most credit, but cannot be listed under all the institutions that may have awarded credit. IB credit should be entered under the nyu gsas fellowships, first term in which the college credit was initially granted. If no term is designated include with freshman coursework.
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Any course from which you officially withdrew, regardless of whether you were passing or failing at the time. Such courses usually appear on the transcript as a W or equivalent symbol. · A course entry must be made even if the withdrawn course does not appear on the transcript. · A course entry should NOT be made if the course was dropped within the normal drop/add period. · No credit hours or AMCAS grade will be assigned. If you withdrew entirely from a school before completing courses for a specific term, you must still list each course for which you were registered that term with Withdrawal as the Course Type. Websites To Buy College Papers! If the rewrite my paper, school does not issue transcripts for students who withdraw entirely, you must request that the registrar's office forward an official letter with an AMCAS Transcript Request Form attached indicating that no transcript is available because of institutional policies. The Transcript Request Form can be found in the Transcript Requests section of the application.
If you have an research paper pediatric nurse, official or administrative withdrawal, it will be included in the AMCAS GPA if your school included it in their GPA.
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Exam Questions: Types, Characteristics, and Suggestions. Examinations are a very common assessment and evaluation tool in universities and there are many types of examination questions. This tips sheet contains a brief description of seven types of examination questions, as well as tips for using each of them: 1) multiple choice, 2) true/false, 3) matching, 4) short answer, 5) essay, 6) oral, and 7) computational. Remember that some exams can be conducted effectively in rewrite, a secure online environment in a proctored computer lab or assigned as paper based or online “take home” exams. Multiple choice questions are composed of one question (stem) with multiple possible answers (choices), including the correct answer and average without, several incorrect answers (distractors). Typically, students select the rewrite correct answer by circling the associated number or letter, or filling in the associated circle on college the machine-readable response sheet. A) Elements of the rewrite my paper exam layout that distract attention from the questions. B) Incorrect but plausible choices used in multiple choice questions. C) Unnecessary clauses included in average sat score essay, the stem of multiple choice questions.
Students can generally respond to these type of questions quite quickly. As a result, they are often used to test student’s knowledge of a broad range of content. Rewrite! Creating these questions can be time consuming because it is often difficult to generate several plausible distractors. Metal! However, they can be marked very quickly. Tips for writing good multiple choice items: Long / complex sentences Trivial statements Negatives and double-negatives Ambiguity or indefinite terms, absolute statements, and broad generalization Extraneous material Item characteristics that provide a clue to the answer misconceptions. Statements too close to the correct answer Completely implausible responses ‘All of the rewrite above,’ ‘none of the above’ Overlapping responses (e.g., if ‘A’ is true) Your own words – not statements straight out of the on project management system textbook Single, clearly formulated problems. Plausible and homogeneous distractors Statements based on common student misconceptions True statements that do not answer the questions Short options – and rewrite, all same length Correct options evenly distributed over A, B, C, etc.
Alternatives that are in logical or numerical then ‘C’ is research paper, also true) order At least 3 alternatives. Suggestion : After each lecture during the term, jot down two or three multiple choice questions based on rewrite the material for that lecture. Regularly taking a few minutes to compose questions, while the material is fresh in your mind, will allow you to develop a question bank that you can use to construct tests and are animals essay, exams quickly and easily. True/false questions are only composed of a statement. Rewrite My Paper! Students respond to research, the questions by indicating whether the rewrite statement is are animals intelligence, true or false. Rewrite! For example: True/false questions have only two possible answers (Answer: True). Like multiple choice questions, true/false questions: Are most often used to assess familiarity with course content and to check for popular misconceptions Allow students to are animals, respond quickly so exams can use a large number of them to test knowledge of a broad range of content Are easy and quick to my paper, grade but time consuming to create. True/false questions provide students with a 50% chance of guessing the right answer. For this reason, multiple choice questions are often used instead of true/false questions. Tips for writing good true/false items:
Negatives and double-negatives Long / complex sentences Trivial material Broad generalizations Ambiguous or indefinite terms. Your own words The same number of true and false statements (50 / 50) or slightly more false statements than true (60/40) – students are more likely to answer true One central idea in each item. Suggestion : You can increase the usefulness of average sat score true/false questions by rewrite, asking students to correct false statements. Students respond to matching questions by pairing each of metal working courses a set of stems (e.g., definitions) with one of the choices provided on the exam. These questions are often used to assess recognition and recall and so are most often used in courses where acquisition of rewrite my paper detailed knowledge is an important goal. They are generally quick and nurse, easy to create and mark, but students require more time to respond to these questions than a similar number of multiple choice or true/false items. Example: Match each question type with one attribute:
Multiple Choice a) Only two possible answers True/False b) Equal number of stems and choices Matching c) Only one correct answer but at least three choices. Tips for writing good matching items: Long stems and rewrite my paper, options Heterogeneous content (e.g., dates mixed with people) Implausible responses. Short responses 10-15 items on only one page Clear directions Logically ordered choices (chronological, alphabetical, etc.) Suggestion: You can use some choices more than once in the same matching exercise. Essay! It reduces the effects of guessing. Short answer questions are typically composed of a brief prompt that demands a written answer that varies in length from one or two words to my paper, a few sentences. They are most often used to thesis management, test basic knowledge of rewrite key facts and terms. Thesis On Project System! An example this kind of short answer question follows: “What do you call an exam format in which students must uniquely associate a set of prompts with a set of options?” Answer: Matching questions. Alternatively, this could be written as a fill-in-the-blank short answer question:
“An exam question in which students must uniquely associate prompts and my paper, options is thesis management system, called a. ___________ question.” Answer: Matching. Short answer questions can also be used to test higher thinking skills, including analysis or. evaluation. For example: “Will you include short answer questions on your next exam? Please justify your decision with. two to three sentences explaining the factors that have influenced your decision.” Short answer questions have many advantages.
Many instructors report that they are relatively easy to construct and can be constructed faster than multiple choice questions. Rewrite My Paper! Unlike matching, true/false, and multiple choice questions, short answer questions make it difficult for students to. guess the answer. Short answer questions provide students with more flexibility to explain their understanding and demonstrate creativity than they would have with multiple choice questions; this also means that scoring is on project, relatively laborious and can be quite subjective. Short answer. questions provide more structure than essay questions and thus are often easy and faster to mark and often test a broader range of the course content than full essay questions.
Tips for writing good short answer items: Your own words Specific problems Direct questions. Taking out so many words that the sentence is rewrite my paper, meaningless. Prompts that omit only one or two key words at the end of the sentence. Suggestion : When using short answer questions to test student knowledge of working definitions consider having a mix of questions, some that supply the term and require the students to provide the definition, and other questions that supply the definition and require that students provide the term. The latter sort of questions can be structured as fill-in-the-blank questions.
This mix of formats will better test student knowledge because it doesn’t rely solely on recognition or recall of the term. Essay questions provide a complex prompt that requires written responses, which can vary in rewrite, length from a couple of paragraphs to many pages. Like short answer questions, they provide students with an sat score without opportunity to explain their understanding and my paper, demonstrate creativity, but make it hard for students to arrive at an acceptable answer by paper nurse, bluffing. My Paper! They can be constructed reasonably quickly and easily but marking these questions can be time-consuming and grader agreement can be difficult. Essay questions differ from short answer questions in that the essay questions are less structured. Fellowships! This openness allows students to demonstrate that they can integrate the rewrite course material in creative ways.
As a result, essays are a favoured approach to websites, test higher levels of cognition including analysis, synthesis and evaluation. However, the requirement that the students provide most of the structure increases the amount of work required to respond effectively. Students often take longer to compose a five paragraph essay than they would take to rewrite, compose five one paragraph answers to short answer questions. This increased workload limits the number of nyu gsas fellowships dissertation essay questions that can be posed on a single exam and thus can restrict the overall scope of an exam to a few topics or areas. To ensure that this doesn’t cause students to panic or blank out, consider giving the option of answering one of two or more questions. Tips for writing good essay items: Complex, ambiguous wording Questions that are too broad to allow time for an in-depth response.
Your own words Words like ‘compare’ or ‘contrast’ at the beginning of the question Clear and unambiguous wording A breakdown of marks to rewrite my paper, make expectations clear Time limits for nyu gsas dissertation thinking and writing. Suggestions : Distribute possible essay questions before the exam and make your marking criteria slightly stricter. This gives all students an equal chance to prepare and should improve the quality of the answers – and the quality of rewrite my paper learning – without making the exam any easier. Oral examinations allow students to respond directly to the instructor’s questions and/or to present prepared statements. These exams are especially popular in language courses that demand ‘speaking’ but they can be used to assess understanding in almost any course by following the guidelines for the composition of short answer questions.
Some of the principle advantages to oral exams are that they provide nearly immediate feedback and so allow the student to learn as they are tested. Research Nurse! There are two main drawbacks to my paper, oral exams: the paper amount of time required and the problem of my paper record-keeping. Average Sat Score Without! Oral exams typically take at least ten to fifteen minutes per student, even for a midterm exam. As a result, they are rarely used for large classes. Furthermore, unlike written exams, oral exams don’t automatically generate a written record. To ensure that students have access to written feedback, it is recommended that instructors take notes during oral exams using a rubric and/or checklist and provide a photocopy of the notes to the students. In many departments, oral exams are rare.
Students may have difficulty adapting to this new style of assessment. In this situation, consider making the oral exam optional. While it can take more time to prepare two tests, having both options allows students to rewrite, choose the one which suits them and their learning style best. Computational questions require that students perform calculations in order to solve for an answer. Computational questions can be used to assess student’s memory of solution techniques and their ability to apply those techniques to are animals essay, solve both questions they have attempted before and questions that stretch their abilities by requiring that they combine and use solution techniques in novel ways. Effective computational questions should: Be solvable using knowledge of the my paper key concepts and techniques from the course. Before the exam solve them yourself or get a teaching assistant to attempt the to buy college papers questions. Indicate the mark breakdown to reinforce the rewrite my paper expectations developed in websites to buy, in-class examples for the amount of detail, etc. required for the solution. To prepare students to rewrite, do computational questions on exams, make sure to websites college, describe and model in class the correct format for the calculations and rewrite, answer including: How students should report their assumptions and paper, justify their choices The units and degree of rewrite my paper precision expected in the answer.
Suggestion : Have students divide their answer sheets into two columns: calculations in nyu gsas, one, and rewrite, a list of assumptions, description of process and justification of choices in the other. This ensures that the marker can distinguish between a simple mathematical mistake and are animals intelligence essay, a profound conceptual error and give feedback accordingly. Cunningham, G.K. (1998). Rewrite! Assessment in the Classroom. Bristol, PA: Falmer Press.
Ward, A.W., Murray-Ward, M. (1999). Assessment in the Classroom. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co. This Creative Commons license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon our work non-commercially, as long as they credit us and indicate if changes were made. Use this citation format: Exam questions: types, characteristics and suggestions . Centre for Teaching Excellence, University of are animals intelligence Waterloo . The University of Waterloo is committed to achieving barrier-free accessibility for persons with disabilities who are visiting, studying, or working at Waterloo. If you have questions concerning access, such as parking, building layouts, or obtaining information in alternative formats, or wish to request accommodations for rewrite a CTE workshop or event, please contact CTE via email (email@example.com) or phone (ext. 33857) and include the session’s title and date.
Our workshops typically involve a mix of without presentation and rewrite, discussion-based activities, and we encourage a scent-free environment. College Papers! We also welcome accompanying assistants, interpreters, or note-takers; notify us if accommodations are needed in this regard. Please note that some accommodations may require time to arrange. We acknowledge that the University of Waterloo is located on the traditional territory of the rewrite my paper Neutral, Anishnaabeg, and Haudenosaunee people. The University of intelligence essay Waterloo is situated on the Haldimand Tract, the land promised to the Six Nations that includes ten kilometers on each side of the Grand River.