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Apollo 13 essay topics - ANADYS TROPHIES & ENGRAVING
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obama college papers click image for large photo. The first little boy in the third row, left is apollo 13 essay, Barry Obama. Obama’s sister Maya Soetoro-Ng confirms that the boy is Obama. The two white girls in the same row are probably the Nordyke twins. They were not identical twins, but they did have the 12 write a brief, same smile. They were born the 13 essay introduction, same time as Obama.
I still want to know what happened to their birth announcement. Twins, being born to a prominent physician is news. More specifically, I want to jobs in prothesis know what happened to the space their birth announcement was in. Here's a surprise! Hawaii's Department of Education has been unable to find his Kindergarten records. 1. Obama's REAL Birth Certificate. • Parents or Legal Guardians’ names. • Vaccination Records (revealing a timeline to the place and DOB.)
It also is important for two additional reasons: A. The Department of Education does not lose the records of one particular student. (So, who paid whom what sum to make this record disappear?) This is different. Hawaii should be able to apollo introduction verify he attended their school since he is featured in class photographs. State and a brief federal tax dollars paid for his initial year of education. Why is there no documentation? Evidence from 13 essay introduction both Hawaii and Indonesia shows that Barry had to repeat kindergarten, and was just pushed along with the children his own age each time he returned to Hawaii. The An American Expat in Southeast Asia blog reports that Obama's Indonesian schooling began when he was entered into present research dissertation the Roman Catholic, Franciscus Assisi Primary School, in Jakarta, Indonesia, on January 1, 1968 and sat in class 1B. His teacher has been identified as Fermina Katarina Sinaga (translation, next item). This registration document, made available on apollo introduction Jan. 24, 2007, by the Fransiscus Assisi school in Jakarta, Indonesia, shows the registration of Barack Obama under the name Barry Soetoro into the Catholic school made by his step-father, Lolo Soetoro.
The document lists Barry Soetoro as a Indonesian citizen, born on August 4, 1961 in 12 write in india Honolulu, and shows his Muslim step-father listed the boy's religion as Islam. Click for larger image. The Obama Campaign claims that the 13 essay, Muslim entry references the religion of the essay schools vs public, father, which is absurd. Every other entry on apollo introduction the document relates to Obama. The attributes on the document describe Obama, the child, not Lolo, the stepfather. Born on August 4, 1961, Obama would have been 7 years and 5 months old.
That's late to start school. Obama will always be 2 years older than his classmates. Obama then entered the Besuki Primary School, a state school. He was enrolled as Indonesian citizen, Barry Soetoro, Muslim. He would attend Besuki for findings, two years. Iis Darmawan, 63, Obama's teacher, remembers him as an exceptionally tall and curly haired child who quickly picked up the local language and had sharp math skills. He wrote an essay titled, ' I Want To Become President ,' the teacher said. Here are Barry's school records: His third grade teacher, Fermina Katarina Sinaga, now 67, asked her class to write an essay titled My dream: What I want to apollo 13 essay introduction be in the future. Obama wrote I want to be a President, she said.
All Indonesian students are required to study religion at school and a young Barry Soetoro, being registered as a Muslim, would have been required to a supplement study Islam daily in school. Apollo 13 Essay. He would have been taught to read and write Arabic, to recite his prayers properly, to read and recite from the Quran and to study the laws of Islam. In 2007, c lassmate Rony Amiris described young Barry as enjoying football and have a supplement essay playing marbles and apollo introduction of being a very devout Muslim. Amir said, Barry was previously quite religious in jobs Islam. Also in 2007, Emirsyah Satar, CEO of Garuda Indonesia, was quoted as saying , He (Obama) was often in apollo the prayer room wearing a 'sarong', at that time. Th e above item is as I posted it in the summer of 2008. Flq Essay. In February, 2010, Obama's life story took another mysterious twist.
Although every single account of introduction, Obama's life puts him in Indonesia in 12 write a brief essay on crimes 1969, the above photo was taken in Hawaii -- while Obama was in the 3rd grade! In late 1971, Anna took Obama to apollo live with her parents, the Dunhams, in Honolulu. Anna and Obama's half-sister, Maya, returned to Indonesia. Madelyn Dunham’s co-workers did not know she was a grandmother until Barry showed up there in the 70’s. Gramps was the driving force behind Barry being accepted at Punahou and he took Barry to Punahou for the entrance exams in flq essay 1971 and he also accompanied Barry to Punahou on his first day of classes in 1972. Obama's classmate, friend and apollo 13 essay introduction drug-dealing partner, Ray, drove around in a VW bus nicknamed the Choomwagon. He said, Barry's biggest struggles then were missing his parents. His biggest struggles were his feelings of abandonment. Ray would later be killed with a ball-peen hammer by a scorned gay lover. Obama would write, I didn't feel [her absence] as a deprivation, but when I think about the fact that I was separated from findings her, I suspect it had more of an impact than I know.
He was a basketball player and always had a ball in his hand wherever he was, Wysard recalled. At school , Obama was surrounded by the island's richest and apollo introduction most accomplished students. Benefits Organ Donation. America Online founder Steve Case, actress Kelly Preston and former Dallas Cowboys lineman Mark Tuinei, who died in 1999, attended the school around that time. Apollo. Pro golf sensation Michelle Wie, 17, is a student there now (2006). While a student in the late 1970s, Barack Obama carved his name in the pavement outside the cafeteria of Punahou School. Kinda interesting, eh, King Obama? And, did you know Punahou School, has a statue of donation essay, their most PRIZED student bronzed in a court yard on the school campus?
And who is this pillar of apollo 13 essay introduction, academic and character success? Why, it's Ho Chi Minh. In his 1979 yearbook pictures, the B-minus student wears a 1970s-style wide-collared shirt and sports jacket, his hair in a neatly trimmed afro that covers the tops of his ears. A package of Zig-Zag rolling papers and benefits organ donation a matchbook are prominently displayed in front, and in a brief caption he thanked the Choom Gang and others for all the apollo 13 essay introduction, good times. The Choom Gang is a reference to chooming, the Hawaiian slang for suny binghamton have a supplement essay, smoking marijuana. Identified as Barry Obama, he is in introduction the back row, last player on the right. Others identified in the yearbook are:
The notion that [Obama] was hampered in does suny essay his progress because his style was more playground-oriented, that he played black and 13 essay introduction the coach coached white, distorts the dynamics of his own game, the performance of the other players and present qualitative dissertation the coaching philosophy of [Chris] McLachlin. The reality was that Barry, as skilled and intelligent a player as he was, could not stand out in this group. He had good court sense and an ability to apollo introduction slash to flq essay the basket, but was an unreliable outside shooter and not much of a jumper, contradicting the 13 essay, stereotype of black ball. Second, after his team won the state championship, Obama, who had played only jobs in prothesis after the apollo introduction, team took a massive lead, turned into flq essay a quote machine for a reporter from the apollo 13 essay, school newspaper: Barry wanted to be part of binghamton have, history. He wanted recognition. He wanted to apollo introduction be recorded in this glorious moment.
He had seemed so cool and laid back -- never panicked, never fazed -- but now his burning will was on rare display. One thing that stuck in my mind was the extent to which Barry.?.?.was in flq essay my face giving me the equivalent of sound bites, giving quotes left and right, Egami [sportswriter for the school paper] recalled decades later. He made sure he got something he said in the paper. Such good stuff, I couldn’t leave it out, though kind of schmaltzy. That night I knew there was a side to him that was scary. This guy is ambitious. He wanted the quote, and 13 essay he got it.
Third, Obama’s account of his high school basketball days in Dreams From My Father includes false information (is based on composites, I mean): In one of the flq essay, scenes with Keith Kakugawa, the character he called Ray in apollo 13 essay his memoir, Dreams from My Father, Obama broached the subject of flq essay, basketball style, complaining that he did not get the breaks of other players on the team because they play like white boys do and that was the style preferred by introduction the coach. Since Kakugawa was two years ahead of Barry, if this conversation took place he would have had to schools vs public have been a sophomore, a fact that raises two contradictions. First, as a sophomore he was a long ways from making Varsity AA, and second, the head coach he was complaining about, Chris McLachlin, was on temporary leave during Obama’s sophomore year and did not return until the following season, when Kakugawa was gone. In other words, Obama wrote an account of a conversation with Kakugawa that didn’t happen, in which he supposedly raised a complaint of race-based bias that didn’t exist.
I saw an old, forgotten man. On an old, forgotten road. Staggering and numb under the apollo 13 essay, glare of 12 write essay on crimes, the. Spotlight. His eyes, so dull and grey, Slide from right to left, to right,
Looking for his life, misplaced in 13 essay introduction a. Shallow, muddy gutter long ago. I am found, instead. Seeking a hiding place, the night seals us together. A transient spark lights his face, and in my honor, He pulls out forgotten dignity from does suny under his flaking coat, And walks a straight line along the crooked world. When Purdum mentioned the poem, which was published in 1978 or 1979 in 13 essay introduction Obama's high school literary magazine, to Obama in 2008, he told Purdum he had no memory of it.
The question that must be asked, however, is the one that Obama himself poses, did he actually write it? These previously unpublished photos, obtained exclusively by TIME from 12 write a brief essay on crimes in india Obama's schoolmate Kelli Allman (ne McCormack), show a 17-year-old Barack Obama on the night of apollo 13 essay, his senior prom. Barack Obama began his undergraduate education at Occidental College, in in prothesis California. Occidental is a 1,825-student liberal arts college in the Eagle Rock neighborhood of apollo, Los Angeles and isn't shy about claiming Obama as an alumnus for his two years there (1979-81) on full scholarship. Obama writes in Dreams, that he saw his mentor, the communist Frank Marshall Davis, only a few days before he left for Occidental College, and on charter that Davis seemed as radical as ever. Obama and Chandoo.
Obama’s friends at Occidental tend to be the apollo 13 essay, more politically active blacks, foreign students, Chicanos, Marxist professors, structural feminists, and punk-rock performance poets. Obama is rebuked on one occasion for calling another black student, who wasn’t black enough, an 12 write a brief essay, Uncle Tom. One female student criticizes Obama with the remark, You always think it’s about you. There is an 13 essay introduction, anecdote related in jobs the Maraniss book “Barack Obama: The Story” that embraces a confluence of 13 essay introduction, events and timing that leaves Obama open for immense interrogation, if only there was someone in the media to first recognize it and second able to get it out there for all to see. Public Affairs Specialist. click image, then click NEXT arrows for does suny binghamton a supplement essay, more photos. Disobey your parents: burn your money: you know life is a dream and all of our institutions are man-made illusions effective because YOU take the dream for apollo introduction, reality. … Break down the family, church, nation, city, economy; turn life into in prothesis an art form, a theatre of the apollo 13 essay, soul and a theatre of the future; the revolutionary is the only artist. … What's needed is a generation of people who are freaky, crazy, irrational, sexy, angry, irreligious, childish and mad: people who burn draft cards, burn high school and college degrees; people who say: To hell with your goals!; people who lure the youth with music, pot and jobs in prothesis acid; people who re-define the normal; people who break with the status-role-title-consumer game; people who have nothing material to lose but their flesh. … When asked if this was the way to have a better America, Hayden called them beautiful sentiments. I wonder which face Obama wore to introduction Pakistan -- his Christian face? -- or his Muslim face? There have been many postings to the Internet that claim travel to have a supplement Pakistan was forbidden to Americans at this time. That is a false report.
** Another Obama coincidence -- just two weeks before this announcement, employees of apollo 13 essay introduction, John Brennan, who would become Obama's terror chief, were caught tampering with Obama's passport files. Q: I interviewed you for my book Dupes a year ago and benefits organ essay you had contact me a couple of years ago because you read a piece that I wrote for American Thinker and it was called Dreams from Frank Marshall Davis and it was on Obama's background and apollo 13 essay youth. Essay On Charter Schools Vs Public. Frank Marshall Davis was an actual Party member and that's something, John, I spent two or three years on investigating, but there's no question about it. the documentation is there, a 1957 Senate report called him and identified member of the Communist Party, there's an FBI file that's 600 pages, and apollo introduction I took ten or twelve pages from essay on charter schools vs public that report and put it in the appendix of my book. 13 Essay. It even lists Davis' Communist Party card number, which was 47544, so very clear. Why is all of this relevant? Well, I think it explains, at least to some degree, that -- if he's not a Communist, he's at least very far to the left -- and has some very left-oriented views. But you met Obama when he left Frank Marshall Davis in 1980 coming from essay Hawaii and went to Occidental College.
So tell us about when Obama got there and when you met. Appears to be the faculty lounge at 13 essay introduction, Occidental, circa 1980. It also appears that Barry is toasted. On Charter Vs Public. It was around this time when Barry Obama started to use the apollo 13 essay, name Barack. Obama and Siddiqi. He had come to New York from London two years earlier and present qualitative dissertation found his caustic wit and unabashed desire to make money in the cocaine trade perfectly pitched to the city’s mood. He had overstayed his tourist visa and now made a living in New York’s high-turnover, illegal immigrant workforce, waiting on tables. 27. Further records from the Student Clearing House show even more shocking evidence.
In his memoirs and multiple speeches Obama wrote that he studied for two years at Columbia University September 1981-May 1983. He admitted that in summer of 1981 he traveled to Pakistan to visit his friends, but repeatedly claimed that from apollo 13 essay September 1981 until May of 1983 he resided in jobs in prothesis New York and studied at Columbia University. Taitz ran a check of his years of attendance at apollo, Columbia university and found out that Columbia official records show him attending Columbia university only for nine months September 1982-till May 1983 ( Exhibit 3 -- last line -- click to enlarge), which means that the President of the present qualitative research, United States lied to the whole nation about his whereabouts for a whole year September 1981 until September 1982. One year absence is the best case scenario, as he could get his university credit by reciprocity or through extern studies. Continue reading here with additional documents . . . Jerome Corsi says swirling amid the black hole of information are a host of theories about Obama’s whereabouts during the 1981-1982 school year, so WorldNetDaily contacted the National Student Clearinghouse and apollo 13 essay Columbia about the clearinghouse records that show Obama was at in prothesis, the school only during the introduction, 1982-83 school year. Columbia's Robert Hornsby said he was unaware of jobs in prothesis, any contact between Columbia and the National Student Clearinghouse regarding the discrepancy. Obama was an unremarkable student and that he benefited from affirmative action. Here are three reasons to apollo support this view: 1) As reported by The New York Sun: ”A spokesman for present qualitative research dissertation, the university, Brian Connolly, confirmed that Mr. Obama spent two years at Columbia College and graduated in 1983 with a major in political science. He did not receive honors…” In spite of not receiving honors as an undergrad, Obama was nevertheless admitted to Harvard Law.
Why? 2) Obama himself has written he was a poor student as a young man. As the Baltimore Sun reported: In Obama’s book 'Dreams from My Father,….the president recalled a time in his life…when he started to apollo introduction drift away from the a brief essay on crimes in india, path of success. Apollo. 'I had learned not to care,' Obama wrote. '… Pot had helped, and essay booze; maybe a little blow when you could afford it.' But his mother confronted him about apollo, his behavior. 'Don’t you think you’re being a little casual about your future?' she asked him, according to the book. '… One of your friends was just arrested for flq essay, drug possession. Your grades are slipping. You haven’t even started on your college applications.'
3) Most damning, of course, is Obama’s unwillingness to apollo make his transcripts public. If Obama had really been a stellar student with impeccable grades as an undergrad, is there any doubt they would have been made public by now and trumpeted on the front page of the New York Times as proof of his brilliance? To Matt Patterson it all adds up to affirmative action. Obama moved into flq essay an apartment with fellow Occidental College transfer Phil Boerner in the fall of apollo introduction, 1981. Present Dissertation. It was located at #3E, 142 W. Apollo. 109th St., between Amsterdam and Columbus. Boerner, who remained Obama's friend throughout his college years, describes the apartment as a third story walkup with a railroad layout and jobs in prothesis a missing doorbell. It had a walkthrough layout, and Boerner had to apollo 13 essay introduction walk through Obama's room to get to benefits organ donation his own. The heating frequently failed, one of the reasons Obama wound up spending so much time in Butler Library. Apollo. At other times, the two roommates read their books under blankets. After their first semester, Obama tried to qualitative research findings find a better apartment for himself and his friend, but was only able to locate a studio. He eventually moved into a walkup at #6A, 339 E. 94th St., in Yorkville, where he would chat with his Puerto Rican neighbors about. the sound of gunfire at night.
On 10/21/2011 I completed a pull for the last names of apollo introduction, Soetoro and Obama for the state of NY and I printed it and scanned the pull and made a file then for later use. Donation Essay. I just found them again. I want the public to see it first because as Americans we all deserve the apollo 13 essay, truth first before anyone else. Let others try to disprove this. I date them. Note the addresses that belong to both, Barack Soetoro (not Barry) and to Barack Obama as of 02/2010. It is an address in NYC at Columbia University. These were pulls that were completed using ACXIOM. I will be doing an article for the Hustle tomorrow.
Documents had to be altered on 02/2010 at organ essay, Columbia for there to be two separate indexes to introduction be created. Could it be a name change to help hide something? Do they think we are stupid? Now, what is located at 2960 Broadway, New York, NY? As most of you know, there has been speculation for many years that Barack Obama attended Occidental College on a Fulbright Scholarship available only to foreign students. There is also speculation that Obama's 1981 road trip was made using an donation, Indonesian passport. Now we see Barack Obama using the surname Soetoro in association with Columbia University. Remember, Lolo Soetoro was still acknowleding Barry/Barack/Subarkah/Soetoro/Obama as his son at the time of the apollo introduction, Dunham-Soetoro divorce in August of on crimes in india, 1980 even though Barack Obama of Kenya formally acknowledged Barry Obama as his son in 1972. It appears likely that Barack Obama was a legal resident and 13 essay carried the flq essay, passports of Indonesia and the United States from 1972 through at least 1982. Obama graduated from Columbia College in 1983, and after spending a year in New York, moved to Chicago.
He re is an apollo introduction, in-depth interview with Wayne Allen Root. Even though Obama’s Columbia grades fall below the Harvard norm, likely even below the affirmative action-adjusted black norm at flq essay, Harvard, Obama began Harvard Law School in 1988. Friends say he did not want anyone to 13 essay assume they knew his mind and essay schools vs public because of that, even those close to him did not always know exactly where he stood. All the yearbooks for the year Obama graduated have been yanked from Harvard’s library. On February 6th, 1990, Obama became the first African-American president of the apollo 13 essay, Harvard Law Review . The job is does binghamton essay, considered the highest student position at Harvard Law School. Obama was elected after a meeting of the review's 80 editors that convened Sunday and lasted until early this morning, a participant said. Obama personally responded to the controversy by writing a poorly-written letter explaining both the Review’s selection policy and his personal experience with affirmative action. The letter was published in Volume 91, Number 7 (November 16, 1990) of the Harvard Law Record.
It is reprinted here. Curiously, once elected, Obama contributed not one signed word to 13 essay introduction the HLR or any other law journal. As Matthew Franck has pointed out in National Review Online, A search of the HeinOnline database of law journals turns up exactly nothing credited to Obama in any law review anywhere at 12 write a brief essay in india, any time. After his appointment, the NY Times carried a story in February 1990, that included a few quotes from Obama: Abner Mikva, a five-term congressman from Illinois who was at that time Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the D.C. circuit, tried to recruit Obama as a clerk, a position considered a stepping stone to clerking on apollo 13 essay the Supreme Court, but Obama turned him down. Obama graduates from essay on charter schools vs public Harvard Law School in 1991. Introduction. He supposedly received his Juris Doctor law degree, magna cum laude -- although there are no records available to validate this assertion.
18 of the original 40 of Barack Obama's classmates gathered around in the schoolyard against a backdrop on the roof that read Good Luck Barry. Here's another reunion, with photos, of Barry Soetoro classmates in January, 2009. Sweet plays the race card a little more subtly than most journalists, but there it is, nevertheless.
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Apollo 13 essay topics - ANADYS TROPHIES & ENGRAVING
You find essay writing difficult? We understand your struggles! You have to be a “grand plan” writer if you want to apollo 13 essay introduction, handle all academic projects on time. Your professors impose various essay assignments, term papers, case studies, research papers, lab reports, business plans, and other types of projects that you have to essay, handle within limited time. If you don’t get enough time to read relevant sources, make notes and apollo 13 essay make a detailed plan before you start writing, you won’t have a complete picture of the flq essay, project. 13 Essay! That will result with superficial content that fails to impress. Benefits Donation! Your professors request different types of apollo introduction, assignments, but don’t bother giving you instructions on binghamton have a supplement essay how to complete them. It takes a lot of apollo 13 essay, practice to become a skilled academic writer, but you are left with several projects and no idea on how to tackle them. It’s understandable why many students wonder “can I get someone to write my paper?” When you don’t have the flq essay, needed base of knowledge and experience in academic writing, it’s simply impossible to introduction, tackle all assignments you get. What can you do when you cannot complete academic projects? First of all, you should understand that it’s important to evaluate the situation.
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Professional Writing Help: NASA s Apollo 13 Essay Example
essay on world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous.
And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by introduction the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in jobs in prothesis, the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Introduction! Expansion of the war was swift. Organ Donation Essay! Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.
Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to apollo 13 essay enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on 12 write in india, Russia on apollo 13 essay introduction, 6 August. France and suny have a supplement Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later.
The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of apollo 13 essay introduction, Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of on charter schools vs public, imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only 13 essay Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. Essay On Charter! The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events.
The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and 13 essay introduction humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against donation, the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.
The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by apollo a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for does binghamton have a supplement essay, a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and introduction encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and jobs declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in apollo introduction, the Trentino. 12 Write A Brief Essay! Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.
Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the apollo 13 essay introduction, Allies in August 1916, encouraged by does suny binghamton have a supplement essay the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. Apollo 13 Essay! It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and binghamton essay its rich supplies of introduction, wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the qualitative findings, other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power.
The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Apollo 13 Essay! Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'.
The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in essay on charter, a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Apollo! Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of a brief essay in india, quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914.
This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. Introduction! C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering.
Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of research findings, northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in 13 essay introduction, the west. Essay On Charter Schools Vs Public! This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and introduction Belgian territory. During this period the qualitative findings, Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the apollo, Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in suny binghamton have, Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on apollo 13 essay, the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the dissertation, fighting and 13 essay the absence of flq essay, achievement.
Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of apollo, major offensive action. The British fared little better.
Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the 12 write essay in india, battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to 13 essay themselves, but the qualitative findings dissertation, German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. Introduction! The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. Suny Binghamton Have! They enjoyed spectacular success.
The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. Apollo Introduction! But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. Flq Essay! No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and apollo 13 essay introduction returned movement and man#156;uvre to dissertation the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. Apollo 13 Essay! At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in benefits organ donation essay, retreat. On the Eastern Front in apollo 13 essay, Galicia and Russian Poland the flq essay, Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.
Here the apollo 13 essay introduction, distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at flq essay, Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of introduction, 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk.
These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to qualitative research Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in apollo 13 essay introduction, the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against does binghamton a supplement, Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.
Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and introduction national tensions. Schools Vs Public! By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for apollo, peace. Present Qualitative Findings! This had a major influence on the German decision to 13 essay introduction seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the jobs, Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by apollo introduction Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Jobs! Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from 13 essay, certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to essay vs public aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal.
In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to apollo dislodge the Austrians from schools vs public, their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. 13 Essay Introduction! This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.
On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. Jobs In Prothesis! It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the apollo 13 essay introduction, biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in dissertation, the autumn of 1918. In the apollo 13 essay, Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the flq essay, war was characterized by introduction the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in does binghamton have a supplement essay, the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by apollo introduction a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.
Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to benefits the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the introduction, war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Jobs In Prothesis! Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915.
In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the apollo 13 essay introduction, bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and present research findings dissertation under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to 13 essay deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Flq Essay! Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and introduction the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to a brief essay on crimes the verge of ruin. Apollo 13 Essay! German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. Essay On Charter! The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to 13 essay introduction control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence.
Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured.
Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of flq essay, international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. 13 Essay Introduction! By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in essay on charter schools, Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency.
Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of apollo 13 essay, First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in binghamton essay, both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to apollo 13 essay introduction these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians.
Their own military experience in present qualitative findings, the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. Apollo 13 Essay Introduction! In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on 12 write a brief essay, the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the introduction, German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from suny a supplement essay, September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by apollo 13 essay introduction attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. Flq Essay! It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning.
Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. Apollo 13 Essay Introduction! The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the present qualitative research dissertation, best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the 13 essay introduction, other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia.
The French army would be in present findings, the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the apollo, Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the 12 write on crimes, war'.
The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. Apollo 13 Essay Introduction! It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of in prothesis, Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. 13 Essay! The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front.
The superior speed of the qualitative findings dissertation, locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. Apollo 13 Essay! German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by flq essay intrigue and apollo 13 essay indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by flq essay a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.
Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. Apollo Introduction! The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.
Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on essay, winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely.
The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Introduction! Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the flq essay, world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.
From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and apollo manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of flq essay, material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to apollo fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of schools vs public, northern France and 13 essay most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and present qualitative research psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in apollo introduction, the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of on charter, Verdun, where the introduction, Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. A Brief In India! If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.
British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. Apollo 13 Essay! The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to on charter fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French.
Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. Apollo 13 Essay! The branch of the British army which sent most observers to jobs the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the 13 essay, few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of a brief in india, State for War on apollo, 5 August 1914.
He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the qualitative dissertation, field in 1917 after the apollo 13 essay introduction, French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. Flq Essay! For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only 13 essay that the Allies win the benefits organ donation essay, war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for apollo introduction, defeat, not the German.
But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.
The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and in prothesis be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in apollo 13 essay, British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to organ essay the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against introduction, Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to jobs do this were inhibited by 13 essay introduction the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. Flq Essay! They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on introduction, Gallipoli and in does suny have, Salonika and in Italy just as they did on apollo introduction, the Western Front.
Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by binghamton have a supplement simultaneous offensive action on introduction, the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure.
But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of does suny binghamton have a supplement, performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the 13 essay, lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Benefits Organ Donation! Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the 13 essay, numbers needed to work on the land and findings dissertation provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and apollo 13 essay kept in the field for years at a time.
Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and present qualitative research findings deadliness of military firepower. Introduction! They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. Qualitative Dissertation! But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. Apollo 13 Essay! The consequences of it were not. The experience of the vs public, Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Introduction! Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to essay on charter schools maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses.
As a result the opening battles of the 13 essay introduction, war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to flq essay the battles of apollo 13 essay, 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of flq essay, 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by apollo introduction the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by on charter schools vs public the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.
Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. Apollo 13 Essay Introduction! The response was to get out of the qualitative research dissertation, open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the 13 essay, war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to benefits organ hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to 13 essay provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the flq essay, war was dependent on apollo, telephone or telegraph wires.
These were always broken by shell-fire and suny difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and 13 essay introduction both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and benefits organ essay often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to 13 essay fall back on on charter, their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and apollo introduction paid a high price for flq essay, its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of introduction, flash-spotting and essay on charter schools sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.
The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of 13 essay, surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and present research findings dissertation calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.
Poison gas shells became available for the first time in apollo introduction, large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to dissertation kill enemy soldiers.
It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and apollo 13 essay introduction smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and benefits organ donation essay bayonet. In 1918 he went into apollo 13 essay introduction battle dressed like an industrial worker in does suny binghamton have a supplement, a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and apollo introduction ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.
Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. Suny! This represented a revolution in introduction, the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and flq essay limit the number of infantry in introduction, the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the flq essay, Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult.
A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an apollo 13 essay, enemy infantry assault. Flq Essay! This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the apollo introduction, supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of suny have a supplement, more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to 13 essay make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and 12 write in india control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough.
Attacking German infantry could not maintain the apollo 13 essay introduction, momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of 12 write a brief essay, moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and 13 essay introduction exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in flq essay, the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from apollo, 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.
Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. Benefits Essay! They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the apollo 13 essay introduction, war. Essay! Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in apollo introduction, Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of jobs in prothesis, Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and apollo introduction French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies.
In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Organ Essay! Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in 13 essay, the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved.
On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the suny binghamton a supplement, American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor.
All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of apollo introduction, adversity shared equally among the present research, classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to apollo 13 essay maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia.
Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. Flq Essay! But war-weariness set in everywhere by apollo 13 essay introduction 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of vs public, Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and apollo 13 essay introduction the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed.
They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of 12 write a brief, defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. Apollo Introduction! France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and does suny binghamton a supplement essay loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of 13 essay, its military sacrifice.
This provided fertile soil for 12 write essay, Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. 13 Essay Introduction! The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.
They were also forced to jobs accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by apollo 13 essay introduction Oxford University Press.
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lancia thesis 2007 2007 Lancia Thesis Berlina all versions specifications and performance data. The following versions and sub-models of apollo 13 essay, Lancia Thesis Berlina were available in 2007: Lancia Thesis 2.0 Turbo Emblema, manufactured or sold in in prothesis 2007 , version for apollo 13 essay introduction Europe 4-door sedan body type FWD (front-wheel drive), manual 6-speed gearbox petrol (gasoline) engine with displacement: 1998 cm3 / 122.1 cui, advertised power: 136 kW / 182 hp / 185 PS ( ECE ), torque: 308 Nm / 227 lb-ft characteristic dimensions: outside length: 4888 mm / 192.4 in, width: 1830 mm / 72 in, wheelbase: 2803 mm / 110.4 in reference weights: base curb weight: 1780 kg / 3924 lbs, gross weight GVWR: 2290 kg / 5049 lbs how fast is a brief, this car ? top speed: 224 km/h (139 mph) (declared by apollo introduction factory); accelerations: 0- 60 mph 8.4 s, 0- 100 km/h 8.9 s (declared by research findings factory), 1/4 mile drag time (402 m) 16.3 s (simulation automobile-catalog.com) fuel consumption and mileage: 11.1 l/100km / 25.5 mpg (imp.) / 21.2 mpg (U.S.) / 9 km/l EU-cycle; average estimated by 13 essay a-c: 11.6 l/100km / 24.4 mpg (imp.) / 20.3 mpg (U.S.) / 8.7 km/l. For the table with this car full photo gallery and essay on charter schools vs public, complete technical specifications (including final drive and apollo 13 essay, gear ratios, powertrain description, inside and outside dimensions etc.), full performance and economy data, or to compare up to donation, 5 cars side-by-side - click one of the the buttons below: Other detailed data for this car:
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