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Applying Social Process and Culture Theories to Fight Club. Applying Social Process and Culture Theories to Fight Club. Applying Social Process and Culture Theories to Fight Club. Fight Club was no doubt one of the essay 2004, most controversial and popular films in 1999. Regarding Hirschi, Sellin and Miller’s works, the motion picture was more than a just a film, but a feature that sought to explain delinquency among the youth. The social process and culture theories are used to analyze the criminal and deviant behavior in the movie. The control theory seeks to answer how people, despite the desire to engage in for gmat application criminal and deviant acts, have the ability to refrain from criminal acts. According to Hirschi (1969), social relationships have a role in shaping an individual behavior.
The control theory assumes that delinquent actions result when one’s connection or bond to on tsunami 2004 the society is weak or severed. Thus, no motivational factors are necessary for metal working courses a person to be delinquent; the only prerequisite is the deficiency of control that allows the person to essay on tsunami be free to scrutinize the gains of crime over the disadvantages of the similar delinquent acts. Consequently, Hirschi attaches four variables that comprise the social bonds, which are the determinant of crime in the society. The social bonds are cemented from engels, childhood hence affect the essay on tsunami 2004, actions of a person. The first variable, attachment, refers to essay for gmat application the extent to which a person is attached to others. Deviant behavior decreases when one becomes more attached to others. For instance, children who are more attached to their parents or guardians tend to exhibit greater social control since changes in their behavior can be easily noted and worked on. The second variable, commitment, refers to the rational thinking involved when making decisions. When a person thinks of committing deviant acts, he or she must consider the gains and losses of such a decision. If one wants to develop a positive reputation, engaging in crime will result in on tsunami 2004 loss because of application, legal violation. Thus, a person cannot only be committed to conformity by what he or she has obtained, but the essay 2004, anticipation of attaining goods through conventional means can buttress one’s obligation to social bonds (Hirschi, 1969).
The third variable, engrossment, allows a person to be adequately involved and occupied in development conventional activities to prevent engagement in crime. For instance, children involved in co-curricular activities can become occupied such that there is no time for them to be idle. Involvement in such activities reduces their susceptibility to engage in deviant behaviors and essay, enhances their control over committing deviant acts. The final variable, belief, refers to a person’s ability to conform to social norms depending on report story, the magnitude of essay on tsunami 2004, confidence in the value system. Hirschi asserted that individuals differ in essay boredofstudies profundity and enormity of essay, their belief and this difference is contingent upon the level of attachment to structures representing the subject beliefs. For instance, belief in the rules exerted by society differs from one person to another. Thus, a person who has a low level of belief in to writte essay the current legal system is essay on tsunami 2004 attributed as deviant despite him or her exercising moral superiority over the system. Rather than conceptualizing deviance as a problem of the strain related to social control, Sellin’s theory on crime and deviance was based on social inequality and rivalry of the social system. Sellin asserted that criminal law is an expression of the regulations of the dominant culture. His theory, popularly known as the Culture Conflict theory, argues that culture conflict occurs when the regulations encompassing criminal law collide with the requirements of societal norms. In a much simpler sense, deviant behavior is a normal process resulting from the struggle for dominance between cultural groups with conflicting interests, values and belonging boredofstudies, emergent norms.
Additionally, Sellin emphasized the multiplicity of cultures in a modern society. He stated that law encompassed the normative configuration of the prevailing culture group. Essay On Tsunami 2004. The criminal law contains the criminal norms, improper behavior and its castigation, reflecting their interests and values of the groups triumphant in attaining control of the lawmaking process. Essay Engels. The conduct norms of less influential groups reflecting their social conditions and experiences frequently conflict with the crime norms. This results in the fabrication of criminal and deviant behaviors entailing the routine behavior of the individual members of the less powerful groups. Essay 2004. Sellin added that as society becomes more diversified, conflict and deviance increases (Sellin, 1938). Walter Miller’s Theory. Walter Miller asserts that crime and deviant behavior is attributed to cultural classes in the society. Miller emphasizes on the lower class culture. He states that the lower class in the society creates and develops an independent subculture with its individual set of values and regulations. To Writte Essay. The norms of the created subculture eventually collide with conventional values.
Consequently, deviant behavior, according to Miller, is attributed to the youths of the lower class who are mostly males. Moreover, the lower class youth are socialized to essay on tsunami inculcate middle class ideas and objectives, which hinder proper socialization. Furthermore, Miller identifies specific factors that cause the lower class youth engage in crime. These factors, known as focal concerns, define delinquent behavior. They comprise the desire for excitement and thrill, toughness, smartness, autonomy, fate and trouble.
Hence, clinging to such concerns promotes criminal behavior among the lower class (Miller, 1958). Fight Club, directed by David Fincher in 1999, connects the control theory throughout the to writte essay, film. It is a complex feature delving on a single person’s criminal behaviors arising from discontentment. Miller’s theory on gang delinquency is applied vehemently whereby young men are attracted by the violence between Durden and the Narrator leading to the formation of an underground fight club. The fight club formed from the fight between Durden and essay 2004, the Narrator attracts other young males eager to engage in deviant acts. Sports. The gang is comprised of young males who are eager to display their toughness, smartness and thrill by taking part in violence. Such focal concerns force the essay on tsunami 2004, youth to engage in criminal and violent behaviors such as street fights. The ability to engage in deviance among the youth indicates the degree of for gmat application, social control, which is influenced by the focal concerns. Thus, social control is 2004 low among the males since they do not conform to the rules put in place by the current legal system.
Miller’s theory applies because the fight club composed of low class males is in conflict with the prevailing system. This is indicated where the group’s attraction to deviance leads to sports development the formation of a violent revolution which engages in criminal behavior such as kidnapping. The control theory is efficient in essay on tsunami determining crime and deviant behavior in the societies. Despite the essay boredofstudies, criticism of the theory that it focuses only on youth deviance, it still outlines the causes of such behavior by involving the role of adults in shaping the attitudes of the youth. Essay On Tsunami 2004. Furthermore, applications of the control theory have been utilized in various educative programs especially in sports schools to understand deviant behaviors in students. Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency . Berkeley: University of California Press. Miller, W. On Tsunami 2004. B. Essay For Gmat Application. (July 01, 1958). Essay. Lower Class Culture as a Generating Milieu of Gang Delinquency.
Journal of Social Issues, 14, 3, 5-19. Sellin, J. T. (1938). Culture conflict and crime . New York: Social Science Research Council. We have the capacity, through our dedicated team of writers, to complete an order similar to this. In addition, our customer support team is always on standby, which ensures we are in touch with you before, during and after the book story, completion of the paper. Go ahead, place your order now, and experience our exquisite service.
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The Russian Telecommunications Market Development in October 2006. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS MARKET IN RUSSIA IN OCTOBER 2006. 1. General Trends of the Market Development. 1.1. The Saturation Rate of the Cellular Communications Market in on tsunami 2004, Russia. By the end of the 3rd quarter and for 9 months of 2006 summary data on the conditions of the cellular communications market in Russia as a whole, on to writte essay, principal regions and the largest operators still have not been published. Thus, it is on tsunami 2004 reasonable to introduce figures by the end of the 2nd quarter 2006. The newer data, being reported by other analytical agencies or private analysts, will follow.
The saturation level of the cellular communications market in Russia by the end of the 2nd quarter 2005 (according to the number of SIM cards) Number of subscribers 140.3 mln. Penetration Level 96.6% Increase in subscriber base +8.2 mln. Volume of the increase 0.679. Penetration level growth +5.6%
By the end of the 2nd quarter 2006 the cellular communications penetration level on report in filipino short story, the Moscow market had reached 146.9%, on the market of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region 126.8%, on regional markets 88.0%. 2nd quarter 2006 Growth in the 2nd quarter 2006. Moscow and the Moscow region 146.9% 7.4% St. Petersburg and the region 126.8% 5.7% Regions of Russia 88.0% 5.4% By the end of the 2nd quarter MTS subscriber base had increased up to 48.0 mln subscribers (increase in the 2nd quarter - 2.2 mln), Vimpelcom subscriber base had grown up to 46.9 mln subscribers (increase about 2.1 mln) and MegaFon subscriber base up to 25.9 mln subscribers ( increase about 1.8 mln). For the 2nd quarter 2006 the subscriber bases of the Moscow operators have increased by 1.26 mln subscribers and essay on tsunami 2004, reached 24.98 mln. To Writte Essay? In the 2nd quarter 2006 the volume of increase of the subscriber bases reduced by 14% as compared to the 2nd quarter 2005. By the end of the 2nd quarter 2006 MTS subscriber base had increased up to 10.64 mln subscribers (increase about 0.39%).
Vimpelcom subscriber base had grown up to 9.79 subscribers (increase about 0.27); MegaFon subscriber base had grown up to 4.33 mln subscribers (increase - 0.59mln). For the 2nd quarter 2006 subscriber bases of on tsunami 2004 St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region had increased by 0.36 mln subscribers and reached 8.04 mln. In the 2nd quarter 2006 in ST. Petersburg and to writte essay, the Leningrad region as well as on the Moscow market the decline in volume of the subscriber bases increase was observed as compared to the same period of essay 2005. The volume of the subscriber bases increase in the 2nd quarter 2006 was 84% of the increase volume in essay engels schrijven, the 2nd quarter 2005. By the end of the 2nd quarter 2006 MTS subscriber base in 2004, St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region had increased up to 2.59 mln subscribers ( the increase in the 2nd quarter 2006 about 0.06 mln); MegaFon subscriber base had grown up to 2.95 mln subscribers ( the increase about 0.10 mln): Vimpelcom subscriber base had grown up to 1.84 mln subscribers (the increase about sports development 0.15 mln). According to essay 2004, the information of to writte essay Advanced Communications Media Consulting analytical center the number of subscribers in Russia reached 143.070 mln in July 2006, having increased by 2.850 mln since June 2006. The cellular communications penetration level increased up to 98.5% as compared to 96.6% in June. Essay 2004? In Moscow and St.
Petersburg the subscriber base volume was 25.299 mln and belonging essay, 8.272 mln in the late July as compared to 24.926 mln and 8.108 mln in June. The penetration level was 149% in Moscow and on tsunami, 130.5% in St. Petersburg as compared to 146.8% and 126.9% in June. Thus, the pure increase in Moscow was 373,000 users and in St. Development? Petersburg was 164,000 users. Both figures were lower then those in June: 407,000 in Moscow and 209,000 in St. Petersburg. The pure subscriber base increase in July was divided as follows: MTS 41.4%, MegaFon 27.4%, Vimpelcom 8.8% of total subscriber base increase.
Other operators got 22.4%. As a result by essay on tsunami 2004, the late June the subscriber base of “Big 3” was as follows: MTS 49.192 mln (48.043 in June), Vimpelcom 47.149 mln (46.905 mln in June), MegaFon 26.687 mln (25.928 mln in June). The Russian market was divided as follows: MTS 34.4%(the share increase by 0.1% as compared to June), Vimpelcom 33.0% (the share decrease by 0.5%),MegaFon 18.7% (the share increase by 0.2%). Other operators owe 13.9% (the share increase by 0.2%). By July 1, 2006 SMARTS subscriber base had been 3, 293,000 subscribers, the increase by 45.2% as compared to July 1, 2005.
The pure increase in application, SMARTS subscriber base was 492,000 subscribers in essay 2004, the first six months of for gmat application 2006, despite the presence of MTS, Vimpelcom and MegaFon in regions. On Tsunami? In August the subscriber base increase was more then 70,000 subscribers, as a result the sports development, total number of SMARTS subscribers in on tsunami 2004, August 23, 2006 was 3.45 mln subscribers. The increase in number of commercial SMARTS subscribers in 2006. For the schrijven, first half of the year 2006 the amount of GSM base stations had increased up to 2,098. In July 1, 2006 the total SMARTS network capacity was about 4 mln subscribers. According to essay on tsunami 2004, the results of the first half of the year the aggregate revenue of SMARTS has increased by 11% as compared to the same period of the last year and was 98 mln USD. According to the estimations of ACM Consulting by September 2006 the amount of the cellular communications users in Russia had increased by 1.2% as compared to August and was 146,800,000 subscribers.
The penetration level, estimated as amount of mobile phones per 100 people, increased up to 101.2% as compared to 100% in August. The amount of MTS subscribers was 49.99 mln people (in August 49.59 mln). Book Report In Filipino Short Story? Having this figure, MTS took 34.1% of the market in Russia. In Moscow MTS served42.5% subscribers, in St. Petersburg 31.5%. Vimpelcom subscriber base exceeded 47.65 mln subscribers (47.49 mln in August) or 32.4% of the market. By the late September Bee-Line network had been used by 38.4% users in Moscow and 23.2% in essay 2004, St.
Petersburg. Within the month MegaFon has increased the number of Russian users up to 28.07 mln subscribers (27,45 mln in August), that is 19.1% of the market share. In Moscow MegaFon has 18.45 users and 35.4% in St. Petersburg. According to Sotovik Information and Analytical Agency, by the late September 2006 the amount of MTS subscribers had increased by 0.93 mln people (including 0.4 mln in Russia) and achieved 67.6 mln, including approximately 50 mln in Russia.
The cellular communications operators are more certain in the conclusion, that to rise income it is more important to take into engels schrijven, account the on tsunami, pattern of demand of to writte essay real and potential subscribers, then to on tsunami, promote its growth by special actions. Two operators of the cellular communications in St. Petersburg are engaged in constructing of application fixed networks. MegaFon has already started providing services of the local communications and soon the company will be joined by on tsunami 2004, Sky Link. The target of the project includes subscribers, using local numbers of the operators and the launch of FMC networks. Many analysts believe, that shares of Russian cellular communications operators are underestimated. in October 2006 CityGroup Smith Barney raise the price of engels schrijven MTS and Vimpelcom depositary receipts. Citygroup experts advise as before to buy ADR of MTS and Vimpelcom. In the review, published on Friday, October 20 they have changed probable prices for MTS from 46 to 52 USD for one ADR, for Vimpelcom from 56 to 75 USD. At the New- York Commodity Exchange depositary receipts of MTS have been going up since this June. They passed 46 USD price in the late July already, and in October 20 they cost more then 63 USD.
At that time ADR of MTS achieved 41.5 USD. In the 2004, opinion of MDM analysts, Russian cellular operators are expected to have a new coil in development as a result of an average revenue per unit (ARPU) and to writte essay, MOU (minutes of use). Other think it can be only favoured by entering the new market of the third generation cellular communications. At the on tsunami, meeting of President of Russia Putin and essay schrijven, President of Angola Dos Santos they discussed the problem of entering by Russian operators the essay, cellular market of Angola. Some commentators think, the first such company could be SV Capital Ltd, founded by the former councilor of to writte essay Vladimir Androsik, a general director of Svyazinvest. SV Capital representatives intend to invest 100 mln USD in African business. The market participants do not exclude, that the project will be joined by MegaFon. 2. The Regulator Activity and the Legal Field Dynamics.
2.1. News in the legislation and other changes in the Legal field. At the essay on tsunami, meeting of the State Commission for Radio Frequencies (GKRC) in October 23 the Ministry of Defense agreed to give frequencies to deploy the third generation cellular networks (3G) in Russia. The commission approved the frequency allotment for construction of the 3G cellular networks and to writte essay, carrying out a tender for their distribution. On Tsunami 2004? Within 45 days the Federal Agency for Communications (Rossvyaz) will have set out for the tender frequencies in the 1935-1980 MHz band, 2010-2025 MHz band and 2125-2170 MHz band. But for all that the consent of the Moscow Region to allotment additional bands for GSM-1800 networks has not been got. The minister of Information Technology and Communications Leonid Reiman has valued the “Svyazinvest” holding capitalization at 5.5 bln USD. Six months ago the Ministry of Information Technology and Communications valued this asset at 4-4.5 bln USD. Analysts believe the holding’s capitalization has grown due to the continuous going up of Rostelecom shares and in case of privatization the asset must be significantly more expensive.
2.2. The Struggle Against Illegal Entrepreneurship. Assessors’ attempts to stop tax frauds and illicit trade were the main subject for book in filipino struggle. But FAS’s pronouncing the judgment of Big 3 cellular operators’ cartel collusion after CPP principle taking effect was the most sensational. On October, 19th FAS declared the actions of Big 3 operators as cartel collusion. The action against Vimpelcom and MTS has been withdrawn as they agreed to eliminate the violations.
MegaFon was directed to eliminate violations of the antimonopoly legislation. Pronouncing the judgment FAS was guided by scientist of MSU Department of essay on tsunami 2004 mathematical methods of forecasting. According to them, probability of the operators’ decision making independently form each other is 0.0003-0.0012%. According to the results of the audit of 2003-2004 the Ministry of sports development Tax and Charges has raised a claim of 1.28 bln roubles to 2004, MTS. The main part of the to writte essay, claim concerns underpayment of the profit tax on sale of the essay 2004, content, delivered the operator by the content-providers. For Gmat Application? The second part of the claim concerns underpaid profit tax on the revenues on rate variations, which occurred during the revaluation of the property and liability in foreign currency. The third part concerns mutual payments between the on tsunami, operators, connected with the report, traffic gap. MTS representatives declared their intension to dispute the claim of the Federal Tax Service in essay, court. Some commentators think, the company has chances because of insufficient readability of the tax legislation.
The same claim had been raised to Vimpelcom before. It was stated in the Moscow Prosecutor’s Office that about 30.000 of cellular phones were stolen and appeared on the “market”. For Gmat Application? The lot of Motorola C115 (167.500 phones), the total price of 530 mln roubles, was seized by “K” Department from Evroset company in spring 2006. 2004? 50.000 phones were called unhealthy and to writte essay, had to essay on tsunami 2004, be done away. But they suspect in in filipino, the Prosecutor’s office that about 30.000 phones were stolen and got to the market. 3.1. Success and Failure in New Assets Buying. Recently Russian telecommunication companies have failed on large international tenders.
Before, in 2005, System’s plans in Turkey had been broken by Vodafone, buying Telsim operator for 4.55 bln USD. The same year 65% shares of the Indian company Aircell, System was interested in, were bought by Malays from Maxis Communications for 1.08 bln USD. System’s participation in the auction for receiving the third GSM-license in Egypt failed, too. The license was received by the Arabian consortium Etisalat, having paid 2.89 bln USD, while the open price was 450 USD. Reportedly, Megafon failed in on tsunami 2004, receiving licenses for cellular communications in Angola and Cuba in 2003-2006. The negotiations in essay boredofstudies, China are still in essay on tsunami 2004, process. Book Report Short? The only successful bargain overseas was a purchase of 13.2% shares of the Turkish largest cellular operator Turkcell for 1.593 bln USD by essay, Altimo holding. In experts’ opinion, the situation outside CIS is now unfavorable for sports Russian operators as all attractive companies are overestimated much, and the operators themselves do not have insufficient experience in transnational marketing. In 2006 292.2 mln USD have been invested in the cellular business outside Russia as compared to 2.33 bln USD in 2005. The business in the CIS has been significantly more successful. According to IKS-Consulting company’s evaluations, Russian operators have managed to on tsunami 2004, take almost 40% of the former USSR market and their presence in the CIS is increasing.
There are no more or less large operators on the territory of the former USSR that could attract western companies. In 2006 Vimpelcom, 32,9% shares of which belong to essay engels, Altimo, bought one company in Georgia, one in Tajikistan, and two companies in on tsunami 2004, Uzbekistan. MegaFon is aspiring to buy Coscom company in Uzbekistan. In analysts’ opinion, Caucasia is the second region of the CIS, attractive from the point of view of the Russian operators’ expansion. For instance, in Armenia and Azerbaijan the cellular communications penetration is correspondingly 23% and 35%. 3.2. The Personnel Changes in the Main Companies. Gennadi Kiryushin, the main shareholder and essay engels, founder of SMARTS group has resigned from General Director and became Chairman of board of essay 2004 directors of the company. His position has been taken up by Andrey Girev, the in filipino short story, former first deputy general director.
The reason for the personnel move in SMARTS is finishing of the 2004, new management system creation. Analysts believe such personnel move can be connected with prospects for settlement of the report, conflict with Sigma company. 3.3. The Companies’ Activity at the Stock Markets of essay Russia. Several members of the board of directors and minority shareholders of System company have sold their share holdings of the consortium, in total 1.9% of the whole share holding for 230 mln USD. Working? The reason, from analysts’ point of view, is need for money for new projects realization. In the early September Altimo made an agreement with Deutsche UFG subsidiary for ADR redemption of one of its assets, the cellular operator Vimpelcom within the period from October 26 to January 1 2007. 2004? Lately, the volume of the buying up has been told, 3.2% simple shares. Thus, Altimo’s share in the operator, has increased up to courses, 35.8% of voting shares. 4.1. The Contradictions between Entrepreneurs as a Result of Changes in essay 2004, Property Structure, Merges and Absorptions.
Analysts are discussing information about possible sale by the government of Sweden the state share holding of Teliasonera telecommunications company. They are guided by the known already fact of participation of the two Sweden ministers in the conflict between Teliasonera and Alfa-group for engels MegaFon assets, when the essay on tsunami, ministers were taking Alfa’s stand. The commentators think, their prospective goal was assistance to the possible large international holding foundation. At that there is an belonging essay opinion, the essay, sale of Teliasonera state share holding would contribute to the settlement of the conflict with MegaFon as the Sweden company can become Alfa’s strategic partner on a basis of exchange of its share holding for its telecommunications assets. SMARTS and book, Sigma group has began negotiations of the agreement of on tsunami lawsuit on settlement of the situation with SMARTS shares, which Sigma is aspiring to. The Russian Union of belonging boredofstudies Industrialists and Entrepreneurs is an intermediary in the negotiations. In accordance with the information, the on tsunami, intermediary has already negotiated for making an acceptable decision.
The parties’ conditions have not been known yet, but the analysts believe the problem may be settled. On the Moscow Prosecutor’s Office’s petition Zamoskvoretzki Court has made a judgment of default arrest of a businessman Leonid Rozhetzkin in charge of fraud. The action against Leonid Rozhetzkin, the head of LV Finance, was claimed in December 2004, based on the claim of Michael North, president of IPOC, the Bermudan growth fund, who addressed to the Moscow Department of Internal Affairs. Working? According to his statement, in August 2003 Alfa-group bought 25.1% MegaFon shares from Rozhetzkin, in spite of the two agreements of IPOC and essay 2004, Rozhetzkin, on which he had got 40 mln USD from courses IPOC. The head of LKV Finance was charged in accordance with part 4 article 159 of the Criminal Code. Since 2003 IPOC has been trying to dispute the deal on on tsunami 2004, the sale of MegaFon blocking share holding in belonging essay boredofstudies, Russian and international arbitral courts. Experts think the criminal case of Rozhetzkin can become a start of anew stage of the conflict between IPOC and Alfa-group the present owners of 25.1% MegaFon shares. Vimpelcom is negotiating for buying Kirghiz operator Sky Mobile from Altimo. The Total of the on tsunami 2004, future deal can be 400-500 mln USD. If the belonging, purchase succeed, Vimpelcom will have a company, owing the property complex and the brand of the Kirghiz cellular operator Bitel, the right for which is essay on tsunami disputed by MTS.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS MARKET IN RUSSIA IN AUGUST 2006. 1. Working Courses? The General Trends of the Market Development. 1.1. The Saturation Level of the Cellular Communications Market in 2004, Russia. The saturation level of the Russian cellular communications market at the end of the 2nd quarter 2006 (according to belonging, amount of SIM cards) Amount of subscribers 140.3 mln. Penetration Level 96.6% Increase of subscriber base + 8.2 mln. Volume of the increase by the 2nd quarter 2005 0.679. Penetration Level growth + 5.6%
By the end of the 2nd quarter 2006 the penetration level of cellular communication on the Moscow market has achieved 146.9%, in on tsunami 2004, St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region 126.8%, on regional markets 88.0% 2nd quarter 2006 Growth in the 2nd quarter 2006. Moscow and the Moscow region 146.9% 7.4% St. Petersburg and working courses, the Leningrad region 126.8% 5.7% Region of the Russian Federation 88.0% 5.4% By the end of the 2nd quarter MTS subscriber base has increased up to 48.0 mln subscribers (the increase in the 2nd quarter about 2.2 mln), Vimpelcom’s subscriber base has increased up to 46.9 mln subscribers (the increase about 2.1 mln), MegaFon’s subscriber base has grown up to 25.9 mln (the increase about 1.8 mln).
Within the 2nd quarter 2006 subscriber bases of the Moscow region cellular operators has increased by 1.26 mln subscribers and reached 24.98 mln. Essay On Tsunami 2004? The volume of the subscriber bases increase in essay application, the 2nd quarter 2006 has decrease by 14% as compared to the 2nd quarter 2005. By the end of the 2nd quarter 2006 MTS subscriber base in the Moscow region has increased up to 10.64 mln subscribers (the increase about 0.39 mln), Vimpelcom’s subscriber base has grown up to 9.79 mln (the increase about 0.27 mln), MegaFon’s subscriber base has increased up to 4.33 mln subscribers (the increase 0.59 mln). Within the 2nd quarter 2006 subscriber bases of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region cellular operators has increased by 0.36 mln subscribers and achieved 8.04 mln. In the essay 2004, 2nd quarter 2006 on courses, the market of essay 2004 St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region as well as on the Moscow market the decline in volume of the subscriber bases increase was observed as compared to the same period of the previous year.
In the 2nd quarter the volume of the subscriber bases increase was 84% of the increase volume in the 2nd quarter 2005. By the end of the 2nd quarter 2006 in St.Petersburg MTS subscriber base has increased up to book report in filipino, 2.59 mln subscribers ( the increase in the 2nd quarter 2006 about on tsunami 0.06 mln), MegaFon’s subscriber base has increased up to 2.95 mln subscribers ( the increase about 0.10 mln), Vimpelcom’s subscriber base has grown up to 1.84 mln subscribers ( the increase about 0.15 mln). According to the information of Advanced Communications Media Consulting, in essay engels, July 2006the amount of essay 2004 subscribers in Russia achieved 143.070 mln, having increased by 2.850 mln since June 2006. The cellular communications penetration level has increased up to 98.55 as compared to 96.6% in June. By late July in Moscow and St.Petersburg the subscriber base volume was correspondingly 25.299 mln and 8.272 mln subscribers as compared to 24.926 mln and 8.108 mln in June. The penetration level in Moscow and St. Petersburg was correspondingly 149% and 130.5% as compared to 146.8% and 126.9% in June. Thus, pure increase in essay, Moscow was 373.000 and in essay, Petersburg 164.000.
Both figures was lower then those in June: 407.000 in Moscow and 209 in St. Essay Engels? Petersburg. On Tsunami 2004? In July pure increase of the subscriber base in Russia was divided as follows: MTS 41.4%, MegaFon 27.4 %, Vimpelcom 8.85 of increase of the essay, total subscriber base. Other operators got 22.4%. Essay 2004? As a result by late July the subscriber base of the Big 3 operators (MTS, Vimpelcom and MegaFon) has been the following (figures in June in brackets): MTS 49.192 mln (48.043 mln), Vimpelcom 47.149 mln (46.905mln), MegaFon 26.687 mln (25.928mln). In July the market of Russia was divided among operators as follows: MTS 34.4% (the market share increase by 0.1% as compared to for gmat, June), Vimpelcom 33.0% (the share decrease by 2004, 0.5%), MegaFon 18.7% (the share increase by essay engels schrijven, 0.2%).
Other operators owe 13.9% ( the share increase by 0.2%). In July 1 2006 SMARTS subscriber base was 3.293 thousand subscribers, the increase by 45% as compared with July 1, 2005. In the 1st half of essay on tsunami 2006 pure increase of SMARTS subscriber base was 492.000 subscribers and due to that SMARTS managed to sports development, increase its market share by 0.7% despite the presence of MTS, Vimpelcom and MegaFon on on tsunami 2004, regional markets. In August the subscriber base growth was more then 70.000 subscribers and as a result in August 23, 2006 the total amount of SMARTS subscribers was 3.45 mln. Increase of the number of commercial SMARTS subscribers in 2006.
For the 1st half of 2006 amount of GSM basic stations has increased up to 2.098. Metal? In July 1, 2006 the total SMARTS network capacity was about 4 mln subscribers. According to the results of the 1st half of 2006 the aggregated revenue of SMARTS has increased by 11% as compared to the same period of the previous year and has been 98 mln USD. According to the results of Internet audience poll, carried out by Sotovik, the information and analytical agency, in August the most popular phone model was Nokia N80. Essay On Tsunami? Nokia has also kept leadership as a producer. Working Courses? The demand in price segment of over 400 USD has increased most (+4%), The demand in price segment 301-400 USD has grown by essay on tsunami, 1%. The largest demand decrease has been observed in price segment 201-300 USD (- 4%). 1.3. The Offer of New and Standard Services. The common innovation for sports all cellular operators has become an essay on tsunami increase of marketing actions as a response to CPP principle introduction.
First the operators set the connection charge, then instead of it they increased the cost per minute of a talk and then simultaneously they offered various bonuses and discounts. MTS has given discounts on night and weekends talks, on intranet outgoing calls in to writte essay, rush hours and while using MTS Numbers and Favourite Numbers. MegaFon has given the discount White Nights similar to Night Talks of MTS and also introduced the bonus system for subscribers of “Light” prepayment tariff plans. The bonus system is used by Bee Line ,too. Regional operators are working the same ways. For instance, SMARTS intends to 2004, cancel fee per second from the first minute of metal a talk for some tariffs. Utel (Uralsvyazinform) has raised the cost per the first minute, except for intranet calls. Tele2 has introduced a new tariffs line, less profitable for outgoing calls then the line, offered before. 1.4.
The Main Companies Potential (capitalization, profit) Because of the capitalization decrease of its telecommunications subdivisions MTS and Komstar, in essay on tsunami, the 2nd quarter 2006 System got pure loss of 14 bln roubles according to RSBU (Russian Accounting Standards) . In the 2nd quarter 2005 System got pure profit of 8.9 bln roubles. According to engels schrijven, System’s analysts the loss is connected to overestimating of shares in MTS (52.8%) and Komstar-OTS (51%) as in the 2nd quarter Russian MTS and Komstar quotations were falling. MTS informes, ARPU in the Russian Federation has reached the limit of decrease and essay on tsunami 2004, should be flattened out at level of the 1st quarter 2006 (6.2 USD). In the 4th quarter 2005 it was 7.3 USD, in essay engels, the 1st quarter 2005 it was 9.1 USD. In Ukraine these figures were 7.5, 9.1 and 10.0 USD correspondingly. MTS intends to hold ARPU in Ukraine at level of the 1st quarter 2006 (7.5 USD).
A new president of MTS Leonid Melamed plans to increase proceeds by 10-15%, to essay on tsunami 2004, hold ARPU at the level of the working, 1st quarter (about 6.2 USD per month), and also to hold profitability according to OIBDA on the level of the previous year, no lees then 50%. In the first half of 2006 MTS proceeds according to RSBU were 48 bln 652.2 mln roubles, that is essay more by 59% then the figure at to writte essay, the same period of the previous year (30 bln 661.2 mln). The cost price has increased by 63.24% up to 17 bln 859.4 mln roubles as compared to 10 bln 940.0 mln roubles. The sales income has increased by 56.2% up to essay 2004, 19 bln 501.4 mln as compared to 12 bln 481.8 mln. The profit before taxation has been 2.5 times as much up to 18 bln 792.6 mln roubles as compared to 7 bln 587.3 mln. Within the book report short story, 1st half of the year the short term debt of essay on tsunami MTS has increased from metal courses 20 bln 391.7 mln roubles to 28 bln 437.1 mln roubles. The long term debt has increases from 76 bln 71.3 mln roubles to 89 bln 32.3 mln roubles. On Tsunami? The short term obligations has increased from 22 bln 014.8 mln roubles to 41 bln 290.2 mln roubles. The account payable has grown from 20 bln 240.7 mln roubles to 22 bln 361.5 mln. The cellular operator MegaFon has published results of the 1st quarter 2006 according to US GAAP.
According to the quarter results, MegaFon’s proceeds are 700.2 mln USD. It can be compared to figures of MTS and Vimpelcom: 929 mln USD and working courses, 871 mln USD correspondingly. Volgatelecom Ltd has published a financial statement. on the 1st half of 2006. The proceeds are 10,170.3 mln roubles, while income from the 2004, communications service has reached 9,602.8 mln roubles. The pure profit is 1,482.2 mln roubles. Uralsvyazinform has introduced the statement of unfunded and financial results for the 1st half of essay boredofstudies 2006. The proceeds have increased by 16.5%, reaching 15,620.8 mln roubles. The pure profit is 1,571.4 mln roubles. The proceeds from the communications operators have increased by 51.9% up to 2,687.3 mln roubles. Essay On Tsunami? The proceeds of the GSM operators are 4,4 times as much that is 4,806.3 mln roubles.
That was contributed by joining Uralsvyazinform by the subsidiary cellular operators Ermak RMS, the South-Ural Cellular Phone and Tumenruskom, and also by increase in the amount of mobile subscribers by 44.5% up to 4 051.9 thousand users. 1.5. The Market Extension Due to Overseas Expansion. According to the information of iKS-Consulting, since the expansion to the CIS countries in 2001 Russian operators have spent 1.38 bln USD on purchase of local companies.Vimpelcom and MTS has invested about 700 mln USD each in the cellular market of the CIS. For the 1st half of 2006 the belonging essay boredofstudies, operators’ subscriber bases in the CIS have increased as follows: Vimpelcom by essay on tsunami, 69%, Megafon by 24%, VTS by sports development, 16%. Since early 2006 the amount of cellular communications subscribers in CIS has increased by 21 %. Vimpelcom activated significantly in the 2nd half of 2005 1st half of 2006.But the company’s share in the CIS subscriber base is not so considerable while MTS is 2004 leading due to the Ukrainian market, where the company has been working since 2003. According to general director of Vimpelcom Alexander Izosimov, the company can buy the Kirghiz cellular communications company Sky Mobile, a subsidiary of the Russian Altimo, one of Vimpelcom’s shareholders. Though the negotiations about Bitel’s property assignation to book in filipino, Sky Mobile are not over, partners of Bitel has already received the essay 2004, information about rewriting of its property on metal, Sky Mobile. The other Vimpelcom’s shareholder Telenor is watching the situation and reminds that the possible buying of Sky Mobile by Vimpelcom must be founded economically as it was with URS buying.
2 . The Regulator Activity and essay on tsunami, the Legal Field Dynamics. 2.1. Essay? News in the Legislation and Other Changes in the Legal Field. A new version of the law “On Advertising”, having come into force since July 1, 2006, prohibits telecommunications companies to spread an advertisement without a preliminary agreement of a subscriber. In September the State Duma deputy M. Korobov is essay 2004 planning to put for development discussion draft amendments to Article 2 of the law “On Communications”, according to which the possibility to declare a communications operator considerable shall be spread on all participants of the telecommunications market. Thus, the Big3 operators (MTS, Bee Line and MegaFon) can be declared considerable, too. In that case they must take a separate stock of their incomes and expenses, and their intranet tariffs will be regulated by Rossvyaznadzor. The Ministry of Information Technology ad Communications decided to postpone on six years the introduction of the principle of possibility for a cellular communications user to be transferred to other operator, holding a mobile number (MNP). That was first mentioned by Leonid Reiman on the Russian Economic Forum in April 2005. 2.2. The State Assets Privatization.
Svyazinvest is essay on tsunami lacking in the forecast plan of the federal assets privatization for 2007, confirmed by the Russian government by the order of August 25, 2006. Minister of Economic Development German Gref does not exclude, that Svyazinvest privatization will not take place. According to his words, the situation has not been defined yet, and book in filipino, different variants are still been worked over. But for essay on tsunami 2004 all that he emphasizes, that though the decision of Svyazinvest privatization has not been made yet, in 2006 they must make a decision about excluding of the company from the development, list of strategic enterprises. In his opinion, privatization is the on tsunami 2004, most optimum alternative: it is necessary for the whole state holding of Svyazinvest to go private at the rate 75% minus 1 share.
2.3. The Legislation and Law Enforcement Authorities’ Evaluation of Legality of Privatizations, Merges and Absorptions Held. FAS (the Federal Antimonopoly service) has filed a charge against MTS, Vimpelcom and MegaFon with having breached Article 6 of the Federal Law of March 22, 1991 #948-1 “On Competition and Limitation of metal Monopolistic Activity in Commodity Markets”. Essay 2004? Article 6 provides a number of prohibitions, regarding agreements and book report in filipino, concerted practices between economic entities. That was caused by the agreement of the operators, concerning establishing interconnect tariffs for each other and third-party players. According to FAS, that put obstacles for regional operators in the way of entering the mobile communications market.
In response to FAS activity several federal operators has stated that establishing of lower tariff was conditioned by on tsunami, wide practice of discount use for bulk buyers. In experts’ opinion, that will, probably, be disputed in to writte essay, court. According to FAS, the essay 2004, department will conclude regarding the information, introduced by essay schrijven, MTS, Vimpelcom and essay on tsunami 2004, MegaFon about simultaneous first minute cost increase after pronouncing of a judgment on the case, concerning interoperators payments between the Big 3 participants. Rossvyaznadzor has not carried out the decree of the Moscow Arbitrage, which in August 18 obliged it to give Vimpelcom a license for work in the Far East. The Court invalidated the April order of Rossvyaznadzor, refusing the company to belonging boredofstudies, licensing. Essay On Tsunami 2004? The court decreed to oblige Rossvyaznadzor to give the license within 10 days from the date of the decision taking. The term was over in August 28. Book Report In Filipino Short Story? The Far East is the only federal region, Vimpelcom is lacking a license in. In August 23 the Arbitrage Court in 2004, St.
Petersburg confirmed the report, decision, taken in on tsunami 2004, May, according to which Sigma Capital Partners (SCP) company was a rightful owner of 799 share (about 20% of the chartered capital) of SMARTS. For Gmat Application? Presently SCP authorities intends to demand convening of the meeting of shareholder to elect a new board of directors. According to 2004, SMARTS, they will dispute this decision in a cassation instance. 2.4. Working Courses? The Regulator’s Activity Evaluation by Entrepreneurs and Mass Media. At the press-conference in August 30 general director of Vimpelcom Alexander Izosimov disputed offers to establish the state regulation of interoperators tariffs of 2004 MTS, Vimpelcom and short story, MegaFon.
According to his information, the cellular communications services in Russia are one of the essay, cheapest ones: ARPU (7 USD per month) is lower then in China (9 USD), India (10 USD) and Brazil (12 USD). At that the economic efficiency of the Big 3 is very high (about 50%). The regulation can decrease investment attractiveness of the cellular market. According to the information of MGTS, CPP principle introduction has led to decrease of traffic volume from metal courses wired phones to cellular phones by 30% in July as compared to July 2005, taking into account season and total dynamics of wired operators’ traffic. At that in July MGTS sent 1.8 mln bills as compared to 380 bills in June 2006. In August the traffic volume is being grown again. 3. The Companies’ Activity and Decision Making, Having Influenced Most the essay on tsunami, Market Development.
3.1. Success and Failure in New Assets Buying. In August 8 during the talk with President V.Putin president of Alfa-bank Petr Aven stated, the group intends to found a large telecommunications company, having main assets in Russia, in which Alfa group will be a leading shareholder. According to essay application, his words, this kind of business is being actively developed in the company. In autumn 2005, in essay on tsunami 2004, particular, the group bought 13.2% of Turkcell in Turkey.
But primarily Alfa would like to to writte essay, be a Russian company and also shows interest to the CIS. According to commentators, Aven’s words are not in accord with the last year’s statements of the main co-owner of Alfa Mikhail Fridman. He stated, he would like to create a global operator on the basis of a large multinational company. In July 31 it became known officially, that 100% shares of the federal retailing network Ultra had carried over to Euroset Holding, which would invest in further development of the network and would be its logistic operator. On Tsunami 2004? Former president and general director of Ultra Temur Amidjanov and Sergey Vilski have been included in the board of directors of Euroset. The brand of Ultra, independence of the trade and to writte essay, marketing policy and the personnel have been held.
The group of companies Dixis has declared the essay, results of regional development in 2006. Since the early 2006 the retail network of digital technics shops, working under Dixis brand, has increased by 70% up to 1201 shop. To Writte Essay? Dixis shops work in 73 regions of the Russian Federation as compared to 57 in early 2006. By the end of the year the company will have started working in 4 more regions minimum, own shops will have been opened in 7 new regions. In regions the market share of Dixis is from 10% to essay on tsunami, 25%. By the end of the year the company hopes to cover no less then 15% of the Russian market of cellular retail. Since 2006 Dixis network has been working in all federal regions of the Russian Federation. The company has opened 11 sister companies, own private shops and more then 500 shops of application franchising partners. The largest sister company is the North-Western company. The telecommunications holding Telenor has bought 100% shares of the Serbian cellular operator Mobi 63 (Mobtel before) for 1. 513 bln euro.
MTS also pretended to the operator. Kievstar GSM, the Ukrainian operator of cellular communications, has refused Euroset to the possibility of work as a Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO) in the own network. According to on tsunami, Kievstar, having studied working experience of virtual operators in book in filipino, Ukraine and overseas, the company concluded, that currently the cooperation with MNVO-operators is inexpedient from the marketing point of view. 3.2. Personnel Changes in the Main Companies. In August 14 a new structure of the corporate management was confirmed in MTS. The united managerial center of on tsunami MTS is divided on the corporate center “MTS groups” and three subdivisions: MTS Russia, UMS and Foreign subsidiaries. According to essay engels, the information from the company, they believe, that will lead to reduction in on tsunami, personnel and managerial expenses. The new structure of report management has been created to raise the operative efficiency and decrease managerial expenses. The personnel reduction must contribute to on tsunami 2004, recovery of the operator’s economic efficiency. Reductions in the Corporate center will concern 3% of MTS personnel, but in future they can be more significant.
A new position, vice-president on operations, has been introduced in Vimpelcom. Belonging? Peter Kovell, since 2004 having worked a general director on essay 2004, operations of the to writte essay, Bulgarian Telecommunications Company, has been applied for the position. 4. The Conflict Zones and the Interests Opposition Fields. 4.1. Essay On Tsunami? The Contradictions Between Entrepreneurs As a Result of changes in Property Structure, Merges and Absorptions. Euroset has ceased connecting clients to the network of the cellular operator Tele 2. Six months ago Euroset cancelled a bonus for sellers in its outlets for Tele 2 contracts sale.
According to the company, it is application not profitable to sell Tele 2 contracts as if a client, connected by a dealer, does not speak a certain number of minutes, the dealer is obliged to give a bonus back to essay, the operator. It concerns almost half of connections. In 2005 Euroset agreed with such conditions as they and Tele 2 were planning to found a Mobile Virtual Network operator (MVNO), working in Russia and the Baltic countries, but the plans has not been realized. In 2005 Euroset sold about 80 thousand contracts of Tele 2 monthly, before the New Year Holiday it sold about 100 thousand. Chairman of Euroset board of directors E. Chichvarkin has raised claims to Nokia, concerning, as he confirms, the facts that the company does not deliver fashionable models, plans to belonging essay, give a profitable business to the other company and has not chosen Euroset as its distributor in the CIS. To influence Nokia the employees has been offered to put Nokia phones’ instructions away, take the phones away and sell them only on customers’ persistence. The lot of 117 thousand Motorola phones, arrested in March 29, 2006, has been returned to the rightful owner, the company Euroset, Both parties has stated, they are glad to resume the relations and intend to forget the 2004, incident. 4.2. The Competition for New Assets and Markets Overseas. The Appeal Court of the Kharkov region postponed from August 22 to September 5 the hearing on Telenor’s appeal on the decision of the Moscow District Court of Kharkov, dated November 3, 2005, which had set equal rights for Kievstar’s shareholders: the Norwegian holding and Storm, being under control of Altimo.
Telenor owes 56.5% shares of the essay for gmat, Ukrainian cellular operator Kievstar, 43.5% belongs to Storm. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS MARKET IN RUSSIA IN JULY 2006. 1. The General Trends of the Market Development. 1.1. Essay On Tsunami? The Saturation Rate of the Cellular Communications Market in Russia. Some companies have published reports of their financial results in the first half of the year. Besides, Sotovik, the development, information and analytical agency, has published results of its own research, concerning active subscribers of the cellular communications in Russia. ‘An active subscriber’ is the cellular communications customer, having used the cellular communications once within the month at least. Besides, one ‘active subscriber’ is one user of the cellular communications, regardless of the amount of active SIM-cards he owes. On Tsunami 2004? By the end of the essay for gmat, 2nd quarter 2006 the number of 2004 ‘active users’ in Russia has been 95.9 mln people. At that an belonging increase of active subscribers has been 40% less as compared to SIM-cards amount increase. The penetration level, according to the number of ‘active subscribers’ has been 66.1%.
By the essay, end of the essay schrijven, 2nd quarter the ‘active subscribers’ share in the volume of the operators’ subscriber bases has been 67.1%. The North-Western and Central licence regions have the highest penetration level according to the number of ‘active subscribers’. Their leadership is mostly provided by the markets, having high penetration level: Moscow and the Moscow region, St. Petersburg and on tsunami, the Leningrad region. The Povolzhye region is metal working courses a licence region , having the highest penetration level according to the amount of ‘active subscribers’, not including the capital markets. The Far East and essay on tsunami 2004, Siberian licence regions have the lowest penetration level according to the number of ‘active subscribers’. According to the forecast of International Data Corporation (IDC) the mobile phone sale in Russia is expected to decrease by 9% as compared to the previous year, when 31.9 mln were sold. It is a result of the previous rapid increase, analysts of the book short, company said. On Tsunami? IDC believes, the mobile phone market will recover, but the belonging essay, process will be long.
In the essay 2004, 2nd quarter 2006 the sales decreased by 8.8% as compared to the same period of the previous year and were 7.12 mln phones. In the 2nd quarter in the sales volume the metal working, share of Nokia delivery was 24.4%, the share of Samsung delivery was 20.3%, Motorola 16.6%, BenQ-Siemens 15.4%, SonyEricsson 11.5%, LG 3.5%. The share of essay 2004 other suppliers was 8.3% 1.3. The Offer of Standard and New Services. MTS company has started developing its own network of outlets, selling its phones and contracts. The first such outlet has been already opened in Moscow. By the report story, end of the year 545 MTS outlets will have worked according to this scheme. In accordance with cellular dealers evaluations, the constructing will cost the company more then 15 mln USD . “Eldorado” network has stated its interest to the market of the cellular retail.
By the end of this year the company is planning to essay on tsunami 2004, open more then 450 outlets of communications, doubling its mobile phone retail network. 1.4. The Main Companies’ Potential (capitalization, profit) MTS company has declared financial implications of the 2nd quarter 2006. Belonging Essay Boredofstudies? If compared with the same results of Vimpelcom, having been published before, it is obvious that MTS keeps leading the Russian and CIS markets in proceeds and on tsunami 2004, amount of subscribers. Within the quarter the company has increased the proceeds by 15.8% or by 20.7% as compared to the same period of the previous year. The operation income before depreciation deduction and intangible assets amortization (OIBDA) has increased correspondingly by 22% and 12.1%. The pure profit has decreased by 3% as compared to the same period of 2005.
As they explain in MTS, this happened because of increase of the costs on the amortization and metal working courses, the unfavourable change in 2004, exchange rate. MTS keeps taking the head over Vimpelcom by the figures, but the company is losing by the growth rate as in previous quarters. For the year MTS pure profit has decreased while Vimpelcom’s pure profit has increased by 22.7% and by 29.8% as compared to the 1st quarter 2006. For a year MTS has increased OIBDA by 12.1% and working courses, the company’s competitor has increased this figure by 42%. In 2006 MTS has increased ARPU as well as Vimpelcom has done. They connect this in the company with the season growth of the essay on tsunami 2004, traffic, the to writte essay, launch of 2004 rouble tariffs and the aggressive marketing policy. Sports? As a whole the results are positive, experts said. On Tsunami? The negative factor for MTS is a fact that the company’s competitor on the Russian market Vimpelcom keeps reducing the gap in proceeds. MTS share price growth was observed at exchanges. According to experts that is connected with the declared programme of buying 10% ADR, confirming the shareholders’ rights to the company’s simple nominal shares. The successful financial results of MTS and the news of buying of 10 % ADR induced analysts to revise the short story, estimation of the operators’ share fair value in favour of increase.
For instance, UBS investment company has raised the fair value of MTS ADR from 40 to 51 USD per share by changing the recommendation from HOLD to essay 2004, BUY. Other companies also publish their forecasts, changed in favour of the rise. MegaFon has published the financial results of the 1st half of the year 2006 on US GAAP. The pure profit has increased by 70% as compared to the same period of 2005 and achieved 318.6 mln USD. The proceeds have increases by 51% and achieved 1.551 bln USD. EBITDA figure has increases by to writte essay, 72% up to 786.5 mln USD. In the 2nd quarter the proceeds was 851 mln USD (the increase of 51% as compared with the same period of the previous year), EBITDA was 443 mln USD (the incease by essay, 76%), the pure profit was 186.5 mln USD (the increase by 67%). According to analysts’ evaluation dynamics of the operator’s figures is quite comparable to MTS and Vimpelcom. According to the data of iKS-Consulting, in the 1st half of to writte essay this year MegaFon passed ahead of MTS and Vimpelcom on APRU.Megfon’s APRU has achieved 10.2 USD, APRU of MTS is 7.3 USD, and essay 2004, APRU of metal courses Vimpelcom is 6.7 USD.
1.5. The Market Expansion due to Overseas Expansion. According to iKS-consulting, since 2001 the Big 3 (MTS, Vimpelcom and 2004, MegaFon) has spent 1.38 bln USD on the purchase of to writte essay operators in the CIS. Vimpelcom and MTS spent in equal parts: 691 USD each. 2004? The most significant deals were carried out in Ukraine and Kazakhstan. MTS bought the Ukrainian operator UMS for 373.47 mln USD, Vimpelcom paid 350 mln USD for Kazakh Kar tel, taking debt instruments of 75 mln USD. Later 50% of Kar tel was sold to Crowell Investments, affiliated with one of the in filipino short story, largest Kazakh bank APF bank. Now each of essay these companies is working in 5 republics: Vimpelcom in Georgia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan; MTS in Byelorussia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kirgizia.
But in Kirgizia MTS , buying 51% of Bitel operator 150 mln USD, still has not taken control over its network and office. 2. The Regulator Activity and the Legal Field Dynamics. 2.1. News in the Legislation and Other Changes in the Legal Field. Due to to writte essay, the summer vocation of the legislative authorities, finished in September, there were not evident changes in the legal field. Amendments to the act “On Banks and Bank Activity”, consummated in essay on tsunami, August, forbid the sale of metal working courses express payment cards for cellular communications and the Internet without making an agent contract with a bank. According to analysts and Mass Media, this makes impossible their sale in most retailing outlets and prices will raise because of bank’s commission charges..
2.2. The State Assets Privatization. In spite of the fact, that Svyazinvest privatization in 2007 has remained doubtful, the market participants and analysts keep discussing any events that could be related somehow to the problem. Recently this has been caused by promoting by Lider company, managing assets of the 2004, pension fund, their general director to the board of directors of Svyazinvest’s interregional company “Uralsvyazinform” (USI). Sports? Lider’s shareholders are “Gasfond”, the Joint-Stock Bank of Gas Industry of Gasprombank Ltd, “SOGAS”. Besides, recently Lider has bought 7.5% shares of the other Svyazinvest’s interregional company the on tsunami, Southern Telecommunication Company (STC). Almost all commentators believe, the telecommunications assets are not interesting to Gasprom and belonging boredofstudies, Gasprom’s participation in 2004, Svyazinvest privatization is improbable. Concerning the minority share holdings of the interregional companies. Lider owes, they speak of investment only to make profit. But some observers think, some participation of Gasprom in Svyazinvest privatization can be provided to keep the state control over essay engels schrijven the company.
2.3. The Legislation and Law Enforcement Authorities’ Evaluation of Legality of the Privatizations, Merges and Absorptions Held. In September 9, 2006, the Court of Appeal left the decision of the Moscow Arbitrage, favouring Vimpelcom on one of the claims, registered by Telenor, changeless. Recently the essay on tsunami 2004, Norwegian company has demanded the court to declare invalid Vimpelcom’s decision of essay schrijven buying of the company “Ukrainian Radiosystems” (URS), but that claim has not been allowed either. Now in Telenor they are waiting for the decision of the Moscow Arbitrage about the deal’s legality. The session is scheduled for October 18, 2006. 2.4. The Struggle with Illegal Entrepreneurship. FAS could not prove the fact of Big 3 (MTS, Vimpelcom and MegaFon) cartel collusion after CPP principle taking effect. But on the plaintiff’s, the Association of Regional Operators of Cellular Communications, insistence a new claim was raised : as if regional operators can lose profit or will be forced to raise tariffs on their services because of the Big 3 activity. Leonid Reiman stated, the Ministry of essay Information and Connections will analyse MTS tariff policy.
Bee Line has stated the intension to address FAS, concerning the metal working, confrontation policy of regional operators. According to on tsunami 2004, Vimpelcom authority, some operators in regions set wittingly low tariffs and do not respond to the company’s offers to establish mutually beneficial conditions. But regional operators regard this as an infringement of book short freedom of competitiveness. Bee Line has accused Uralsvyazinform (Utel trade mark) of monopolism on essay on tsunami, the basis of the fact, that being simultaneously the operator of wire and cellular connections, the company set a group of application tariffs, giving users of wire phones baseless advantages for calls on cellular phones. The Moscow Arbitrage rejected the on tsunami, 291 mln roubles claim of Motorola cellular phones producer on protection of reputation to the Russian company RussGPS. The claim on protection of Motorola’s business reputation was the metal, result of the scandal, concerning the seizure from Euroset company a lot of phones on more then 19 mln USD, legally imported to Russia. In the late March RussGPS stated they have several patents, protected in Russia, for most of the seized Motorola phones. 2.5. The Regulator’s Activity Evaluation by Entrepreneurs and Mass Media.
The changes at the cellular communications market after introduction of CPP principle since July1, 2006 are still being discussed. In MGTS they said that within July they had sent 8 mln bills, including the column ‘intrazone connection’, but they did not mention any statistics of amount of calls from fixed phones to cellular phones. The amount has admittedly decrease much at first, and in August it started growing again. The cellular operators’ representatives think they could hardly speak of considerable tendencies before the end of summer season. A large lot of 117.000 Motorola phones, arrested on 2004, the Russian border in March , has been returned to engels, the rightful owner, and this has changed the situation in the field of mutual relations between the law enforcement bodies and trader companies. Actually the 2004, racket action of the security agencies has been foiled. The goal of the action was sales of the seized goods without the essay, court decision.
The dismissal of the action and restitution of the goods to the owners were preceded by Euroset’s and Motorola’s protest and other delays from the essay on tsunami, direction of the prosecutor’s instances. The State Commission On Radio Frequency stated it had found the frequency resource for in filipino story Vimpelcom in 2004, the Far East and was ready to give it to the operator under the for gmat application, tender by early 2007.But Vimpelcom intends to assert its rights on licenses and frequency without the tender. 3. The Companies’ Activity and Decision Making, Having Influenced Most the Market Development. 3.1. Success and Failure in New Assets Buying. System telecom is handling the problem of expediency of participation in the tender for buying of essay 65% share of the schrijven, state communications operator Telekom Srpske (the Serbian Republic in Bosnia). 11 companies has shown interest to the shares buying. Beside System telecom, they are Telekom Srbije, Mobilkom Austria (Austria), Magyar Telekom (Hungary), Elisa (Finland), Telenor (Norway) and others. In addition to payment of the share holding value, the tender winner will have to invest 50 mln euro in Telekom Srpske development within the on tsunami 2004, first year after the share holding buying. The company’s capitalization is valued at 250.6 mln euro. The number of fixed connections subscribers is 344.47 thousand people, the number of cellular connections users is 571.78 thousand people.
In September 18, the time of the price offers introduction in the tender for sale of 90% shares of Armentel telecommunications company, belonging to the Greek company OTE, was up. Report In Filipino Short? 16 companies participated in the tender. Vimpelcom, MTS and essay, two Arabian companies has reached the second round. After the applications introduction OTE must offer the government of Armenia, the owner of the rest 10% shares, to sell its share to for gmat, the company. If the government rejects, it will have to say which company from amongst pretenders it gives preference to. It is known that the starting price, declared by OTE, is essay on tsunami 637 mln USD. Megafon is negotiating with the American company MCT Corp the buying of 85% shares of the third largest Uzbek cellular operator Coscom. Buying of this asset will become the first step on the assets market outside Russia for MegaFon. According to participants of the Russian cellular market, Coscom costs about 180-200 USD. The company was founded in 1996. 85% shares of the company belongs to MCT Corp., 15% shares belongs to a group of private persons and the management.
The company possesses GSM network, covering all large cities of Uzbekistan. Presently the only foreign asset of MegaFon is belonging boredofstudies a small Tajik operator TT-Mobile, founded by on tsunami, Megafon in cooperation with Tajiktelecom in 2001. Analyst notes, the level of competitiveness may be high for MegaFon against the background of mass poverty of the population. In Uzbekistan 8 cellular companies work, the largest of which, Uzdunrobita and Unite, belong to MTS and Vimpelom correspondingly and serve 1.4 mln users in total, that is more then two thirds of cellular communications users in the country. 3.2. The Companies’ Activity at the Stock Markets of Russia. Volgatelecom has started placement of the bonded debt to the sum of 3 bln roubles. On money received the company is planning to improve fixed network and metal, increase the service revenue by 40%.
They’re also planning to increase the subscriber base of the cellular operators, controlled by the company, by more then 34%. 3.3. The Distribution of Securities Overseas. According to MegaFon the company will not enter IPO. This year the company is essay figuring on the positive money flow. Besides, the to writte essay, company has already had several open credit lines, that has not been chosen yet. One of the credit lines was closed by 2004, MegaFon ahead of schedule. The company cancelled the credits of the European Bank Of Reconstruction and development and Ithe International Financial Corporation (IFC). 3.4. The Personnel Changes in the Companies.
The board of directors of Vimpelcom has taken the decision of making a new 2-year contract with general director Alexander Izosimov by simple majority of essay for gmat application votes. At that Alfa-group’s representatives (32.9% shares) voted for Izosimov and Telenor’s representatives (26.6%) shares) voted against him. 2004? As the qualified majority of votes “for” has been got, the result of the elections can be disputed in court. 2006—2016 « » .
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50 harvard essays EssayEdge offers all users free access to over 100 admissions essays accepted by the United States' top undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs. Essay On Tsunami? The following Sample Admissions Essays were accepted by Harvard. Sample Admissions Essays - Accepted by Harvard (Courtesy of essay engels schrijven EssayEdge ) Influence? Why is 2004, it that the people who influence us most influence us in ways that are not easily quantified? Through her work with abused children, my mother has shown me the essay, heroism of selfless dedication to a worthy cause. By being an upstanding individual, my playwriting teacher in middle school acted as an essay on tsunami, inspiring male role model at to writte essay, a time when I needed one most. By being approachable and essay 2004, interesting, my World History teacher in my freshman year of to writte essay high school opened my eyes to the connections between a society's culture and its history and broadened my view of cultures and the world. 2004? While these influences mean much to book report in filipino short story, me and have contributed greatly to my development, they came too easily to mind.
The fact that I could sit down and write a list of how these people influenced me suggests that the on tsunami, influence did not alter me in any profound way. These people are all my elders, and perhaps I feel distanced from them. The person whose influence shook me to the deepest level is a person whose influence is nearly impossible to describe. Essay Engels Schrijven? Mike, the best friend I’ve ever had, changed me, and I changed him at one of the most crucial times in our lives: the essay, seventh grade. We developed our personalities, our senses of humor, and essay engels schrijven, our love for 2004 girls at the same time and in metal working courses the same manner. It would cheapen his influence to quantify it; I am what I am because of him; I cannot say that about anybody else. Mike came to 2004, my school in the seventh grade, and belonging, we immediately clicked. Before he came, I didn’t feel like an outcast by any means, as I had my friends that I had known since first grade. However, until Mike, I never had anyone my age to identify with completely. Essay On Tsunami 2004? Mike made me feel confident in who I was; he reaffirmed my drives and my thoughts and my inspirations.
At this awkward stage in our lives, we found uncritical appreciation in each other. Book Report? We both were obsessed by movies and had a similar sense of humor. We had the same problems and the same thoughts. That was all it took. Halfway through that same year, Mike and on tsunami, I became inseparable. In fact, our yearbook had a section that lists the essay application, names of students and what they were never seen without. Under Mike, it read: “Ted, ” and under Ted: “Mike.” I became a staple at essay 2004, his house and he at mine. Essay Schrijven? We no longer had to ask our parents if it was ok to have a sleepover on weekends, they assumed we would. On weekdays, we usually walked over to his house, which was near school, and on tsunami, hung out there till I had to metal, go home.
Our favorite past time on those long afternoons after school was to walk to essay, the nearby food mart and get a bag of working chips and two 24 oz. Coca-Colas. Watching a movie, we would sit on on tsunami, his couch with our chips and Coke and talk about our dreams of working together in the movies. Mike wanted to be a director and actor, and I wanted to be an actor and a playwright/screenwriter. It was the to writte essay, perfect combination. On Tsunami 2004? We even tried writing a few scripts together. Of course, as two seventh grade boys, it wasn’t all skips through the park either. We were extremely competitive and would get into brutal fights for seemingly no reason at all. One time, I pulled out a chunk of his hair, but I don’t remember what started the fight. I think that our connection was so intense that we could not have normal emotions toward each other. As friends, we were best friends, but in essay an argument, we wanted to fight each other to the death.
Still, the Wrestlemania days were rare; ordinarily, the on tsunami, intensity of that connection was a good thing. I was pretty shy about girls, and when I did talk about them with guys, I would usually just say a girl was hot. With Mike, I could really talk about girls and who they were; with Mike, I didn’t have to put on my public “cool” facade but could really say what I felt about a girl. Metal Working Courses? Then we went to separate high schools. We tried to maintain the friendship, and you might think we would have been able to since we had been so close, but we drifted apart. Our friendship was based on being near each constantly, of growing up in the same town, under the same conditions, with the same hopes, fears, and dreams. Now we still go to movies occasionally and hang out, but it's not the same, and we both know it. I thought Mike and I would be friends forever, and maybe we will be. I mean, we have to make those movies together, right? But the way things look right now, I doubt we will ever reconnect. Our friendship in the seventh grade was magical, and 2004, lightning doesn’t strike twice.
My playwriting teacher from middle school left, but I handled it. I learned a great deal from him, and I appreciate him for the subject he taught and the way that he taught it. I will probably miss my parents when I leave for college, but I doubt the separation will pain me deeply since the essay for gmat, connection between parents and children will always be there. With Mike, I lost the best friend I ever had, and I lost that forever. Losing that kind of bond cuts deep, and I know it's the type of wound that doesn't heal. It’s the type of wound you just live with. On Tsunami 2004? But just because we're not friends anymore, it doesn't slight the essay, times we had when we were friends. Those times are what influenced me so deeply. No, Mike did not work some lesson into my heart, he worked himself into my heart, and even if I never see the guy again he changed me forever. I think that finding someone who you truly connect with and essay 2004, feel that you were destined to meet, someone who you feel truly understands you and makes you feel special, I think meeting someone like that is to writte essay, one of the most profound experiences you can have. For access to 100 free sample successful admissions essays, visit EssayEdge . Sample Application and Admissions Essays: Used by admissions officers to on tsunami 2004, decide between two (or even two hundred) candidates with almost identical profiles, the metal working, application essay is often the only guide admissions officers have of essay on tsunami 2004 your ambition, personality, and interests.
As a result, your essay must be unique, captivating, and informative. Try the free online entrance essay course offered by Essay Edge and working courses, Cyber Edit. Named the on tsunami 2004, world's premier application essay editing service by The New York Times , EssayEdge has helped more applicants write successful application essays than any other company in the world. This course offers extensive advice on how to report short story, write outstanding admissions essays.
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Causal Argument Essays and Research Papers. [pic] PCR0025 Critical Thinking All Foundation ONLINE NOTES Topic 3: Argumentation • . Argument is a claim put forward and defended with reasons. On Tsunami. • Arguments are composed of: 1. Premises 2. Conclusion • Statement: A sentence that can sensibly be regarded as either true or false. • 2 things about statements: 1. A sentence may be used to metal, express more than one statement. 2. On Tsunami 2004. Not all sentences are statements. Analogy , Argument , Critical thinking 919 Words | 6 Pages. be looking at: (i) the for gmat application nature of arguments (ii) how to recognise arguments http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=teMlv3ripSM . Definition: ‘ Argument ’ …. a set of sentences such that… …. one of them is being said to essay, be true… …. the other(s) are being offered as reasons for believing the working courses truth of the one. An argument : It is Friday, Marianne always wears jeans on Friday so Marianne will be wearing jeans today. Essay. Q1: List the essay boredofstudies sentences that make up this argument It is essay on tsunami 2004 Friday Marianne always. 2005 albums , Argument , Attacking Faulty Reasoning 617 Words | 3 Pages.
Comparison of a Position Argument and schrijven, a Proposal Argument. 6.1 COMPARISON OF A POSITION ARGUMENT AND A PROPOSAL ARGUMENT |DISTINCTION |POSITION ARGUMENT . On Tsunami 2004. |PROPOSAL ARGUMENT | |Definition of essay for gmat, each |Proposal arguments , however, are arguments in which you |Position arguments are arguments in which you state your | | |request a change in policy or procedure of something that is|position on a certain issue and then proceed. Argument , Arguments , Critical thinking 278 Words | 3 Pages. Obama. You have justified your points, providing supportive reasoning behind your thoughts. You were able to link theory with practical application and . real-world settings. However, remember that in an inductive argument , you cannot guarantee the conclusion. A deductive argument follows the on tsunami 2004 if “this” than “that” format, so it must be true.
Please see my attached comments regarding 1 premise/conclusion issue, 1 strict/loose, and 3 in part IIa. Working Courses. I would suggest the following to improve the professional. Analogy , Argument , Deductive reasoning 2040 Words | 7 Pages. THE TYPES OF ARGUMENTS Normally we classify all arguments into one of two types: deductive and inductive. Essay On Tsunami. Deductive . arguments are those meant to work because of their pattern alone, so that if the premises are true the essay schrijven conclusion could not be false. All other arguments are considered to be inductive (or just non-deductive), and these are meant to work because of the actual information in the premises so that if the premises are true the conclusion is essay 2004 not likely to development, be false.
The difference is. Analogy , Argument , Deductive reasoning 771 Words | 3 Pages. Euthanasia: The Argument Euthanasia is defined as; “the intentional killing by act or omission of a dependant human being for his or her . alleged benefit. On Tsunami 2004. (The key word here is “intentional”. If death is not intended, it is not an act of euthanasia.)” Source: www.euthanasia.com/definition The act of euthanasia is a very controversial issue which has many supporters, both for and against and has been a topic of the world’s media, time and belonging essay boredofstudies, time again. There are arguments both for and against. Argument , Arguments , Euthanasia 2012 Words | 6 Pages. ?Crito Argument “I do have these things in mind, Crito, and essay on tsunami 2004, also many others.” (Crito 45a) In the in filipino “Crito”, there are two . arguments , one of which Crito argues for why Socrates should escape the essay prison, and the second, for which Socrates argues for sports why he should remain in essay on tsunami prison and accept his death sentence.
I will assess both arguments and show the report in filipino short story strengths and weaknesses that Crito and Socrates both presented in essay the dialogue. I argue for application Socrates, for which his argument is based on the principle. Argument , Escape , Escape character 1136 Words | 3 Pages. evaluate whether the Zombie argument against Cartesian Dualism is essay on tsunami 2004 sound by: criticising the Zombie argument through analysing . the boredofstudies validity of essay on tsunami, each premise of the Zombie argument , defending the Zombie argument against one of its objections and responses from the book report in filipino story Cartesian Argument by analogy. This essay will offer reasons to believe the essay 2004 Zombie argument by contrasting it with the book report in filipino story strengths and weaknesses of the on tsunami 2004 Cartesian Dualist main argument and the Cartesian Dualist Argument by Analogy and metal working, then draw. Argument , Consciousness , Mind 1641 Words | 4 Pages. Tell me as much as you can about this passage as an argument (especially the parts). p1. Sun will bring skin cancer. p2. Rain will bring . puddles that we can jump. p3: Pain is bad, joy is good. If a thing causes more good things than bad things, then it is 2004 better. p4: If A is essay boredofstudies better than B, then we should like A. p5.
Puddles are better than skin cancer because it creates more joy than pain. Conclusion: I like rain better. 2. Find an on tsunami 2004, argument from an working courses, external source (make sure to tell me where. Argument , Argumentation theory , Arithmetic mean 1291 Words | 3 Pages. ENG122: Composition II An Introduction to 2004, Argument English 122: Composition II An Introduction to Argument . Essay Schrijven. Argument and Rhetoric An argument can take many forms. Essay On Tsunami 2004. It is, at its root, a method for communicating a singular position with evidence, logic, and persuasion. Belonging Essay. There are essential elements to essay on tsunami, all valid arguments , though they may take different forms. 1. Claim 2. Evidence 3. Counterargument 4. Rebuttal A successful argument depends upon the delicate balance between these elements. Imagine a. Argument , Arguments , Counterargument 1323 Words | 5 Pages. ? Argument and Persuasion Unit Assignment: Rant Now that we have studied and practiced making persuasive arguments , it is application time . to apply your knowledge by essay on tsunami crafting an argument of your own.
Your argument will take the form of schrijven, a rant, and will be presented to the class. Essay 2004. Step One: Writing rant (noun): 1. A loud, extravagant declamation (speech) expressed with strong emotion. Belonging Boredofstudies. To make things even more interesting, use the RAFT “formula” for on tsunami writing your rant: Role: chosen by you . Argument , Arguments , Audience 664 Words | 3 Pages. in the issue and not take responsibility for their lives. Labeling obesity as a disease gives people other factors to for gmat, blame on being obese instead of blaming . themselves. The author then quotes another medical professional whose argument agrees with the author’s argument , that obesity is not a disease. The quote explains that throughout the 2004 years obesity has become more pandemic even though the way our bodies are made today are the same as centuries ago. In Filipino Story. What has changed between those times and now. Argument , Cancer , Epidemiology 885 Words | 3 Pages. 1. On Tsunami. Fallacious Arguments Considering the fallacies discussed in Chapter Four of An Introduction to Logic, construct three different . arguments that display distinct fallacies.
Give an explanation of sports development, why each makes a mistake in drawing the conclusion it does. On Tsunami 2004. Review your classmates’ examples and for gmat, see if they, in fact, commit the fallacy identified. Essay On Tsunami 2004. Before getting to to writte essay, examples of different arguments that display distinct fallacies I will define a fallacious argument . In our text fallacy is defined. Argument , Argumentation theory , Attacking Faulty Reasoning 1215 Words | 4 Pages. Possible Arguments Christy Wernert South University Online Composition III Eng2001 S01 Possible Arguments Human rights . are always being challenged by society in one way or another, where some of these issues should be left to the individuals. The three topics looked at today for this essay is essay 2004 just a few issues that society needs to take a good hard look at. Courses. The first issue is essay on tsunami 2004 challenging Women’s Rights and the fact that females should not be able to fly commercial flights. To Writte Essay. The second. Abortion , Argument , Compassion Choices 830 Words | 3 Pages. Analogical Argument 2. Analogue: doctors and lawyers Primary Subject: travel agents Similarity: jobs that give public service with . years of training Property: must also give the most safety and on tsunami 2004, comfort in service Although there are many relevant similarities between the analogue and the primary subject (e.g. jobs that give public service with years of training), they are outweighed by the relevant dissimilarities, most important of which is the difference in the level of to writte essay, training and.
Analogy , Argument , Difference 1385 Words | 5 Pages. Everyday we encounter arguments in many different places. It could be at work, home, at a gas station, while driving in essay on tsunami the freeway, or even . just by watching television. Most arguments we hear or take part in are sound and convincing but some arguments have logical fallacies or having mistakes in their reasoning. There are many types of logical fallacies that are common and frequently committed which sometimes are used to psychologically persuade the reader or viewer. Examples of these common. Argument , Argumentation theory , Attacking Faulty Reasoning 853 Words | 3 Pages. The main argument in The Apology by famous ancient Greek philosopher Plato is whether, notorious speaker and philosopher Socrates is corrupting . the youth by preaching ungodly theories and teaching them unlawful ideas that do harm to individuals and society.
In his words Socrates quoted the prosecution's accusation against belonging him: Socrates is on tsunami 2004 guilty of corrupting the minds of the to writte essay young, and of believing in supernatural things of his own invention instead of the essay on tsunami 2004 gods recognized by the state. 1 Further. 2005 albums , Argument , Corruption 903 Words | 3 Pages. Rogerian Argument , 15% of final grade, 1300 words Having analyzed a visual argument , a written argument , and . your own writing processes, you will now be asked to to writte essay, present two opposing views on essay on tsunami, the same social justice issue, and, in whatever way possible, propose a solution that would please both parties. Essay Engels. Rough Draft (3 printed copies) Due: 3/18 Final Draft Due: 3/20 by the beginning of class via Turnitin The Assignment: Using at least three sources, craft a Rogerian Argument focusing on.
Argument , Capital punishment , Death penalty 810 Words | 3 Pages. argue that an approach to corporate social responsibility that achieves business benefits is nothing of that sort - THAT's just good business. So CSR must be . only those things that are of no direct benefit to the business - ie. Essay On Tsunami 2004. philanthropy. Cue the arguments about how CEOs should not be giving shareholders money away on their personal causes and projects. This is just dumb. In Filipino Story. Nobody says that marketing is not marketing if it benefits the business, or HR is not 'pure' HR if its priorities align with. Argument , Business ethics , Corporate social responsibility 1316 Words | 4 Pages. Sample Paper for Propositional Arguments. Sample paper for propositional arguments In this paper, I will analyze the following argument in terms of validity and . soundness: An argument is a syllogism only essay on tsunami 2004 if it is valid.
An argument has a true conclusion, if it is report story valid. If an argument has consistent premises, then it has a true conclusion. Essay On Tsunami. Thus, if an argument is a syllogism, then it has a true conclusion. As we shall soon learn, this argument is valid but unsound. I. Argument , Arguments , Logic 595 Words | 3 Pages. Recognizing Arguments In this assignment, you will apply key concepts covered in the module readings.
You will identify the component parts . of book report in filipino, arguments and differentiate between various types of arguments such as strict, loose, inductive, and deductive. You will then construct specific, original arguments . There are two parts to the assignment. Complete both parts. Essay. Part 1 1a: Identify Components of Arguments Identify the component parts of the argument , premises and conclusion, for. Analogy , Argument , Deductive reasoning 1297 Words | 7 Pages.
Argument from authority The basic structure of such arguments is essay as follows: Professor X believes A, Professor X speaks from essay 2004, . Working. authority, therefore A is true. Often this argument is implied by emphasizing the many years of experience, or the essay on tsunami 2004 formal degrees held by the individual making a specific claim. Story. The converse of this argument is sometimes used, that someone does not possess authority, and therefore their claims must be false. (This may also be considered an on tsunami, ad-hominen logical fallacy – see. Argument , Argumentation theory , Attacking Faulty Reasoning 847 Words | 3 Pages. Disclaiming the Argument from Evil. which proves that there is no God. For Gmat Application. This argument is better known as the Argument from essay, Evil (Sober, 119). In this paper I will . argue that the Argument from Evil is termed as bad and can not stand as justifiable due to non-conclusive reasoning for why evil cannot exist. Essay For Gmat Application. I will provide specific evidence for on tsunami 2004 why a particular premise pertaining to the Argument from Evil can be thrown out resulting in the absence of sports, evidence that can rule out God's existence. The Argument from Evil does not incorporate the. Argument , Evil , Existence 942 Words | 3 Pages.
Metaphysics The “Basic” Argument for Theological Fatalism Fatalism Fatalism is the on tsunami view that everything that happens in entirely . Book Report In Filipino Short. unavoidable. Since everything that happens is unavoidable, none of our actions are genuinely up to essay on tsunami, us and we powerless to do anything other than what we actually do. To Writte Essay. Here is Richard Taylor on what the fatalist believes [“Fate” from Metaphysics, 4th Ed (Pearson, 1991)]: “A fatalist is someone who believes that whatever happens is and always was unavoidable. . Argument , Free will , Logic 1464 Words | 5 Pages. ? The Toulmin Model of Argument (adapted from: http://schoolnet.org.za/twt/09/M9_argumentation.pdf) In his work on logic and essay, . argument , The Uses of Argument , Stephen Toulmin indicates three major, necessary parts of an essay application, argument , along with three additional, optional parts. The three major parts are the claim, the support, and the warrants. Claim: This is the essay on tsunami disputable assertion for which a speaker argues.
The claim may be directly stated or the claim may be implied. In Filipino Short. You can find the claim by asking. Affirmative action , Argument , Law 1524 Words | 4 Pages. would be good for local and state governments. “The Comptroller for New York City found that legalizing gay marriage would bring $142 million to on tsunami 2004, the City’s . Metal Working Courses. economy and $184 million to the State’s economy over three years” (ProCon.org). Another argument in same sex marriage is the issue of procreation. Many people who are against the issue believe that because a same sex couple cannot naturally conceive children that they should not be allowed to marry, however if this were the case, couples who.
Argument , Civil union , Defense of Marriage Act 887 Words | 3 Pages. Mapping an Argument The first article chosen was Abortion Is a Form of Genocide by Meredith Eugene Hunt. The issue in this article is . “abortion as a form of genocide is accurate by historical and accepted standards of the word’s definition” (Abortion, 2010). I highlighted this as the issue because it includes everything the essay on tsunami author is trying to prove to the reader. Hunt wants to working courses, make it known that she believes abortion is a form of genocide even though the parameters fit loosely.
She also points. Analogy , Argument , Aristotle 861 Words | 3 Pages. Argument Analysis Essay of Saint Joan George Bernard’s play Saint Joan was written about the life of on tsunami 2004, a French woman in the late 1420’s who . was on trial for to writte essay spreading heresy. The Inquisitor presented a case against Joan to essay on tsunami, the juries of the church court. His argument opened with an appeal to ethos. Throughout the rest of his speech he would keep up this type of appeal, preferring the approach of ethical appeals to that of logic. Due to his lack of logical appeals, he seemed to revert to engels, logical. Appeal to emotion , Argument , Argumentation theory 1132 Words | 3 Pages. *Metaphors or Arguments * Metaphors are an important ingredient to speech and argument . It is on tsunami used to show comparison between . two things, a way to essay engels schrijven, create new meaning.
Niccolo Machiavelli in his book The Prince discuss of social and political along with his creative usage of on tsunami 2004, metaphors. His ideas consist of to writte essay, Medicine, the Fox and the Lion, as well as The Archer. These are the metaphors that I will be discussing as we go in more debt about on tsunami 2004, Machiavelli and belonging, James Kastely thoughts of argument . Machiavelli. Analogy , Archery , Argument 922 Words | 3 Pages. ?Among Immanuel Kant's (1724–1804) most influential contributions to philosophy is his development of the essay on tsunami 2004 transcendental argument . In Kant's . conception, an argument of this kind begins with a compelling premise about our thought, experience, or knowledge, and then reasons to a conclusion that is report in filipino short story a substantive and unobvious presupposition and necessary condition of this premise. Essay 2004. The crucial steps in this reasoning are claims to the effect that a subconclusion or conclusion is working courses a presupposition and. Argument , Critique of Pure Reason , Epistemology 2045 Words | 5 Pages. Descartes Dream Argument - Philosophy. are having, or we are not dreaming all our experience of this world? When we dream we imagine things happening often with the same sense of on tsunami, reality as we do . when we are awake. In Descartes dream argument , he states there are no reliable signs distinguishing sleeping from waking.
In his dream argument , he is not saying we are merely dreaming all of what we experience, nor, is he saying we can distinguish dreaming from being awake. I think his point is we cannot be for sports sure what we experience as. Argument , Dream , Dreaming 1410 Words | 4 Pages. to have many books on the “Best-Selling” List. In her book, “The Argument Culture”, Deborah Tannen takes a closer look at how we as a society . have come to view arguing/debating as a normal form of communication. Essay On Tsunami 2004. Our inability to look at more than two views at a time, has led us to essay for gmat, limit the potential conversations that could easily take place.
In this essay, Professor Tannen takes a shot at making us believe that being in on tsunami 2004 an “ Argument -culture” is not the best thing for book report short us as a whole. She wants us to. Argument , Argumentation theory , Arguments 1157 Words | 5 Pages. This revision looks more closely at the second purpose of writing which is on tsunami examined in application Standard Grade English - to deploy ideas and argue. Essay 2004. This means that . you are expected to book report in filipino story, discuss a given topic and to present an essay 2004, argument related to it. Organising a discursive essay There are three basic structures (ways of organising) for the discursive essay - * you argue strongly for to writte essay a given discussion topic * you argue strongly against a given discussion topic * you argue about a given discussion. Animal testing , Argument , Arguments 1703 Words | 5 Pages. Argument for Paying College Athletes.
? Argument for Paying College Athletes Stephen Elting Mercy College . Have you ever heard of a business that made billions of dollars, yet did not pay their employees? Seems pretty remarkable doesn’t it? Well this business is known as the NCAA. According to essay 2004, an article in the New York Times, the NCAA made $770 million from sports, just the three-week Men’s Basketball Tournament, but how much did the athletes who participated in said. Argument , Basketball , Big East Conference 1408 Words | 6 Pages. wju.edu/arc/ How Do I Write a Position/ Argument Essay? Having a strong thesis has been important all along in your writing. Having a . coherent form to individual sentences, paragraphs, and the essay as a whole has been important all along in on tsunami your writing.
Yet here is where everything comes together, where the various compositional forms (cause/effect, classification/division, comparison/contrast, example/illustration etc.) may serve your argument . The good news is that, unless you’ve been. Argument , Essay , Fallacy 754 Words | 3 Pages. Determination of a Cogent Argument. Course Date Determination of a Cogent Argument Cogency is report short story a term that is used to show coherency of the various premise that . contributes to a conclusion that is derived from the individual statements (Audi 235). On Tsunami 2004. Cogency thus depends on the premises, if all the premises are true, then the conclusion will be probably construed to be true, the use of the word probably makes it open for any argument to be considered. Cogency is used in inductive argument where observations are used as an inference. Argument , Cogency , Critical thinking 678 Words | 3 Pages.
Assignment: Mapping an Argument January 11, 2013 CRT/205 The article, “Social Networking Sites Can Be Forums for Cyberbullying,” . (Foxman, et.al, 2009), deals with the issue of cyberbullying online as becoming a real threat, and parents and educators of middle and high school children must work together to combat antisocial and harmful harassment to development, make these crimes punishable by law. In its’ premise, or reason, the article indicates that cyberbullying is 2004 more prevalent in middle. Abuse , Animal rights , Argument 828 Words | 3 Pages. Outline of Rowe's Chapter on the Argument from Contingency in His Philosophy of Religion, Part II Notes on in filipino, Rowe on the Cosmological . Argument , Part Two: Four Criticisms of the Argument 0. Review 0.1 Dependent beings: a being whose existence is on tsunami 2004 accounted for belonging essay by the causal activity of on tsunami 2004, other beings 0.2 Self-existent beings: beings whose existence is self-explanatory, or accounted for by their own inner nature 0.3 The Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR): There must be an explanation for (a) the. Argument , Cosmogony , Cosmological argument 1273 Words | 4 Pages. addressing our argument to a group of representatives from corporate companies in the country. In 2011 we successfully held a fundraising event . which helped us raise enough funding to support the activities of book report short story, our organization. We used the essay on tsunami 2004 funding to buy the sports development healthiest vegetables from local farmers and purchase only the naturally raised meat. While our goal is to fight hunger in the country, we also maintain an eco-friendly outlook. A clear statement of purpose for the argument After the financial. Argument , Arguments , Donation 1286 Words | 4 Pages.
The argument from evil In this paper I am going to on tsunami 2004, use the belonging very popular argument from evil, which was made popular and . originated from the Greek philosopher Epicurus, to argue that existence of on tsunami 2004, god is highly improbable. I’ll put this argument in engels schrijven the simplest of terms. For my first premise I am stating that if an essay, omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent god exists than evil does not exist. For my second premise I am stating that evil exists in this world. When you put these two together. Argument , Existence , Existence of God 909 Words | 3 Pages.
Critical Thinking and Bandwagon Argument Comment. valid conclusion, I have to collect some data and evidence from other news sources and compare with my findings 2b) it would be wrong to persecute allied . for age discrimination, allied has always been a great corporate neighbor. Logical flaw: argument against speaker. Comment: this conclusion is very bias because it is accusing the person because of his age, not because of his work. 2c) the decrease in smoking can be attributed to increase restrictions on smoking in public. Metal Working. Logical. Appeal to emotion , Argument , Argumentation theory 482 Words | 3 Pages. Final Project: Comprehensive Argument Analysis. The writer shows inconsistencies by stating something then states the opposite in it’s reasoning | 7 | State one argument made by the author. . | Animal experimentation has changed the world and developed many drugs for diseases. This is essay 2004 one of the arguments the author stated in courses paragraph two of the article | 8 | Identify the premises and conclusion of the argument . | The argument consists of unstated premises and on tsunami 2004, conclusion shown in the 2nd paragraph.Premise: 1. Animal experimentation has developed. Animal Liberation Front , Animal rights , Animal testing 1653 Words | 5 Pages.
Differences and Similarities in the Arguments for Legalizing Marijuana. Lorena Burgess RHE 309S October 28th, 2011 Differences and Similarities in the Arguments for Legalizing Marijuana The legalization of . Essay. marijuana has become a mainstream issue that the nation has become highly concerned about in recent years. On Tsunami. Lately more and more conservative opposers have begun to change their minds, realizing the benefits of marijuana. Debate followers go as far as saying that it is no longer a question of if marijuana will be legalized, but when. The shift in essay for gmat application viewpoints . Argument , Cannabis , Global Marijuana March 1295 Words | 5 Pages. awareness about the damaging effects of smoking, it unfairly targets women creating an inaccurate stereotype about those who smoke and raises a logical . fallacy in implying that smoking will make one less attractive, in order to on tsunami, convey the intended argument against smoking. The advertisement is successful in demonstrating the metal working courses harmful ways in which smoking can physically affect people. The black and red colors on the ad symbolize black scarred innards, or even lungs, that are charred due to smoking;. Argument , Gender , Gender role 984 Words | 3 Pages. Plato's Republic- Arguments about Justice.
Right vs. Wrong In Plato’s Republic, Book 1, various interlocutors make arguments on the definition of justice. Essay On Tsunami. Cephalus proposes the . definition of justice as “speaking the truth and essay for gmat application, paying whatever debts one has incurred” (Plato, 331c). I will prove Cephalus’ argument true by analyzing the structure and his use of examples, discussing possible errors in his reasoning and finally rebutting those who disagree. Justice is knowing right versus wrong and acting on that understanding. Essay. Cephalus begins. Argument , Aristotle , Ethics 1397 Words | 4 Pages. Preparing and Writing an Argument What is a controversial issue? * We should work hard for more money. / We should work less, make less . money and take time off to to writte essay, enjoy life. Which point do you agree with and why? * In time of economic recession, universities are/are not justified in raising tuition. * Some people believe that university students should be required to attend classes. Essay On Tsunami 2004. Others believe that going to class should be optional for students. Which point do you agree with and.
Argument , Argument map , Argumentation theory 1348 Words | 7 Pages. Animal Testing - Arguments Against Testing. Arguments against testing The critics of animal testing base their argument on the grounds of essay for gmat, morality, the necessity or the essay . validity of metal working, this procedure, whether proper authority to perform such tests is granted, whether such tests are actually needed and whether such tests practically provide us with any useful information. Essay 2004. The supporters of animal rights say that animals have the right to live their own life peacefully; and we are not allowed to engels schrijven, meddle with them just because we can. (Alternatives. Animal Liberation Front , Animal rights , Animal testing 854 Words | 3 Pages. Summary of Deborah Tannen's the essay Argument Culture. point these days.
In “The Argument Culture,” Deborah Tannen discusses how today’s society no longer honors the noble American tradition of . debate. She explains how we no longer want to take the to writte essay time to listen to both sides and definitely not all sides of an issue. Essay. We have become a society that would rather fight and argue, often to the point of violence. “The war on essay application, drugs, the war on cancer, the battle of the sexes, politicians’ turf battles- in the argument culture war metaphors pervade. Argument , Argumentation theory , Critical thinking 892 Words | 3 Pages. ?Composition II Eric Sack Fall 2014 Essay 1 - Narrative Argument Write an essay that implies a clear claim and uses your own first-hand . Essay On Tsunami 2004. experience for support/evidence. The essay must use appeals involving logos, ethos and pathos, as well as connect with a general audience.
For an in-depth discussion of narrative arguments , see chapter 11 of Good Reasons. To Writte Essay. According to the book, narrative arguments rely on concrete individual stories rather than abstract statistics; they allow the readers to draw. Argument , Essay , Essays 723 Words | 2 Pages. How to essay, Put Forward a Great Argument. Tammy Chang Instructor: S. Development. Joseph English 103 February 25, 2013 Logical Fallacies Do you want to on tsunami, have a great argument ? Then you need to . use excellent rhetoric technique and think carefully about what you want to say to engels, persuade others to be on your side.
You have to consider the opposition and make sure to address counterargument so that the listener can understand well what you have thought about the on tsunami whole thing. Especially in modern society, we have more information and to writte essay, comments that can. Argument , Attacking Faulty Reasoning , Critical thinking 1915 Words | 4 Pages. Solving Spring 2013 Assignment 1 Short Argument (10%=Constructing A Short Argument ) Purpose of Assignment • . This is an individual assignment. • This assignment will help students understand the argumentation process involved in critical thinking. This assignment will also help students recognize key features and concepts in particular aspects of argumentation. Objectives • To help students articulate a short argument . • To help students understand key terms and. Argument , Argument map , Critical thinking 452 Words | 3 Pages. Evaluating and Engaging Wal-Mart Argument. Vaughn W. Essay. Walker Wilsey-Cleveland Eng. 100 2 November 2012 Evaluating and Engaging Wal-Mart Argument Wal-Mart has made American living . more affordable.
The company provides more jobs and supplies consumers with cheap merchandise. Over the engels schrijven years Wal-Mart has become a big topic of discussion. On Tsunami 2004. Author Steve Malanga exonerates the benefits of belonging boredofstudies, Wal-Mart. In Steve Malanga’s essay, “The War on Wal-Mart,” Malanga discusses how Wal-Mart has produced many jobs, made shopping equitable for low income families. Argument , Argumentation theory , Attacking Faulty Reasoning 948 Words | 3 Pages. Collaboration and Argument Carmetta C Jackson and Waltresa Mayho ENG/215 EFFECTIVE ACADEMIC WRITING JULY 9, 2011 DR Tracy A Boothe . Collaboration and essay, Argument Collaboration is belonging defined as working collectively with others or concurrently to achieve a goal especially in essay on tsunami 2004 a creative attempt to put together the right elements of success implemented to accomplish something. Argument is defined as controversy or the implication of expression through opinions for an effort to persuade;. Argument , Argument map , Collaboration 2218 Words | 7 Pages. The Motionless Arrow: Aristotle's Thoughts on Zeno's Arror Argument. The Motionless Arrow: Aristotle's Thoughts on Zeno's Arror Argument Aristotle's thoughts on Zeno's Arrow Argument as . represented in Chapter 9 of Aristotle's Physics: A Guided Study can be understood in such a way that it might not be next door to madness. To Writte Essay. In this chapter, Aristotle interprets Zeno's argument of the Flying Arrow as missing the mark.
There are four premises for this argument , and in Aristotle's opinion, premise three can be rejected. He does not believe that time is composed. Argument , Aristotle , Logic 960 Words | 3 Pages. Examining Different Arguments Related to the Choice of a Career. Title Examining Different Arguments Related to the Choice of a Career Assessment Part A: Critically Evaluating an Argument . Build your mindmap. On Tsunami 2004. Arts and Sciences (Advantage): Lots of belonging, flexibility in career choices: Overgeneralization Arts and Sciences (Disadvantage): Leads to a career in essay on tsunami food service - 'Do you want fries with that?': Irrational Appeal Education (Advantage): The best way to essay for gmat application, make a difference in essay the world: Overgeneralization Education (Disadvantage): Guaranteed low paying. Argument , Argumentation theory , Critical thinking 746 Words | 3 Pages.
Comrades from Cairo - Counter Argument. with You”. In Filipino. It was written by ‘Comrades from Cairo’, whom mainly claimed in their article that the Arab spring roots from all the demonstrations happening at . the moment. 2004. By coming across all points and boredofstudies, claims mentioned in the article, I find that the argument of on tsunami 2004, ‘Comrades from Cairo’ is in a weak form as they use unsubstantial support for their claims, logical fallacies and book in filipino short, are biased as they deny people’s own voice and experiences. Essay. The ‘Comrades from Cairo’ use unsubstantial support for their own. Arabic language , Argument , Critical thinking 1453 Words | 4 Pages. Success of development, Aquinas’s Cosmological Argument. Aquinas’s cosmological argument is a posteriori argument that Aquinas uses to essay, prove the existence of God.
Aquinas argues that, . “Nothing can move itself, so whatever is in motion must be put in motion by another, and that by another again. But this causal loop cannot go on to infinity, so if every object in motion had a mover, there must be a first mover which is the unmoved mover, called God.” (Aquinas, Question 2, Article 3). I do agree with Aquinas’s cosmological argument in report in filipino short proving the existence. Aristotle , Causality , Cosmogony 872 Words | 3 Pages. A Critical Evaluation of the Deductive Argument from Evil. Critically Evaluate the Deductive Argument from Evil Logically, can Evil and the “three-O” God co-exist in essay 2004 this universe? The deductive . argument from evil says they cannot.
In this essay I will explain the argument and analyze why it is valid but unsound. I will do this by discussing fallacious nature of the premise that if God were omnipotent and knew he could prevent the existence of essay for gmat application, evil without sacrificing some greater good he would then necessarily prevent it. The essay will propose. Argument , Deductive reasoning , Existence of God 1710 Words | 5 Pages. Key Arguments in Judith Thomson's A Defense of Abortion. Judith Thomson: A Defense of on tsunami, Abortion Judith Thomson article simply outlines the right of sports, abortion with women. 2004. Judith presents the argument . that everyone has a right to engels schrijven, life. However, throughout the on tsunami article she underlines key arguments and give multiple examples and analogies to further prove her point. Essay Engels Schrijven. Thomson began by saying that because everyone has a right to life, it is automatically assumed that the fetus is a person, and therefore has a right to life. Furthermore, the mother does have. Abortion , Argument , Human 1583 Words | 4 Pages.
An Intro To Argument Week 1 Discussion 1. ?English 122: Composition II An Intro to Argument Argument and Rhetoric An argument's a method for communicating a singular . position w/evidence, logic, persuasion. There are essential elements to essay on tsunami 2004, all valid arguments , though they may take different forms. 1. Development. Claim 3. Counterargument 2. Evidence 4. Essay On Tsunami. Rebuttal A successful argument depends upon courses, the balance between these elements. The claim is the basis of the on tsunami 2004 argument . Belonging Essay Boredofstudies. A big opposing viewpoint, called the counterargument, is constantly pushing. Argument , Arguments , Critical thinking 932 Words | 2 Pages.
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essay for grade 8 Writing standards for essay, eighth grade define the knowledge and metal working courses, skills needed for writing proficiency at essay 2004 this grade level. By understanding 8th grade writing standards, parents can be more effective in helping their children meet grade level expectations. What is 8th Grade Writing? In Grade 8, students refine and to writte essay, build upon previously learned knowledge and on tsunami 2004, skills in essay increasingly complex essays. On a regular basis, 8th grade students are expected to produce coherent and focused multi-paragraph essays that are error-free and feature varied sentence structure. Eighth grade students are able to select and essay on tsunami 2004, use different forms of writing for specific purposes such as to inform, persuade, or entertain.
Eighth-graders edit their writing based on their knowledge of grammar and report story, usage, spelling, punctuation, and other conventions of written language. In eighth grade, students use every phase of the writing process and continue to essay on tsunami, build their knowledge of writing conventions. Students use citations competently, follow research report formats, and present written reports incorporating graphics and media. What Writing Standards Measure. Academic standards are very specific, detailing every aspect of what students are expected to to writte essay, achieve in each grade. Organized into five key areas, writing standards focus on: Writing process, writing purposes (what students write), writing evaluation, writing conventions (grammar and usage), and research/inquiry for writing. The following writing standards represent what states* typically specify as 8th grade benchmarks in writing proficiency. Eighth grade writing standards focus on the writing process as the on tsunami primary tool to help children become independent writers. Metal Working! In Grade 8, students are taught to use each phase of the process as follows:
Prewriting: In grade 8, students generate ideas from multiple sources and on tsunami 2004, use strategies and tools (e.g., technology, spreadsheets, Venn Diagrams, plot pyramids, notes, and outlines) to essay engels, develop a personal organizational style. Students choose the form of writing that best suits the intended purpose and then make a plan for writing that prioritizes ideas, addresses purpose, audience, main idea, logical sequence, and essay, timeframe for completion. Drafting: In eighth grade, students develop drafts by categorizing ideas, organizing them into paragraphs, and to writte essay, blending paragraphs within larger units of text. Essay 2004! Writing exhibits the students’ awareness of audience and purpose. Drafts establish a controlling impression, have a coherent thesis, and end with a clear, well-supported conclusion. In eighth grade, students are expected to offer substantial and relevant supporting evidence in the form of analogies, paraphrases, quotations, opinions from to writte essay authorities, comparisons, and 2004, similar devices. To Writte Essay! Students analyze the language techniques of professional authors, including rhythm and varied sentence structure, demonstrating a command of essay on tsunami 2004 language with a freshness of expression. Revising: In eighth grade, students revise selected drafts by elaborating, deleting, combining, and metal working, rearranging text. Essay! Goals for to writte essay, revision include improving coherence, progression, and essay on tsunami 2004, the logical support of ideas and content. Eighth-graders revise their writing for word choice; appropriate organization; consistent point of view; voice; and transitions between paragraphs, passages, and report, ideas.
Other grade 8 revision techniques include developing relationships among ideas using parallel structures and creating precision and interest through creative language devices. Editing: Students edit their writing to essay on tsunami, ensure standard usage, varied sentence structure, and report in filipino, appropriate word choice (e.g., eliminating slang). Eighth graders proofread for grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling, using reference materials, word processor, and other resources, (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus). Publishing: Using technology, eighth graders refine and “publish” their work frequently in a format appropriate to audience and essay 2004, purpose (e.g., manuscript, multimedia). Published pieces use appropriate formatting and graphics (e.g., tables, drawings, charts, graphs) when applicable to enhance the appearance of the document. Use of technology: Eighth grade students use available technology to support aspects of creating, revising, editing, and publishing texts. Students compose documents with appropriate formatting by using word-processing skills and principles of working design (e.g., margins, tabs, spacing, columns, page orientation). In eighth grade, students write to express, discover, record, develop, reflect on ideas, and to problem solve, and produce texts of at least 500 to 700 words. Specifically, 8th grade writing standards stipulate that students write in the following forms: Narrative: Eighth grade students write biographies, autobiographies, short stories, or personal narratives that develop an essay on tsunami 2004 engaging plot (including rising action, conflict, suspense, climax, falling action and resolution), and that use narrative and descriptive strategies (e.g., relevant dialogue, specific action, physical description, background description, comparison or contrast of characters).
Narrative essays in the eighth grade relate a clear, coherent incident, event, or situation by using well-chosen details. Students are also expected to reveal the to writte essay significance of, or the writer’s attitude about, the subject. Expository: Eighth grade students write a variety of specialized expository/informational essays (e.g., process, description, explanation, comparison/contrast, problem/solution) that include a thesis statement, supporting details, an on tsunami 2004 organizational structure particular to its type, and introductory, body, and concluding paragraphs. Other 8th grade expository writing applications include informal communications (e.g., friendly letters, thank you notes); and formal communications (e.g., business letters, invitations, job applications) that have a conventional format and require students to present information purposefully and to writte essay, succinctly to meet the needs of the essay 2004 intended audience. Students also write directions to unfamiliar locations and record information (e.g., observations, notes, lists, charts, legends), correctly citing sources. Research Reports: In 8th grade, students define a thesis and record important ideas, concepts, and direct quotations from essay engels significant information sources and paraphrase and summarize relevant perspectives on the topic. Writing should use a variety of primary and secondary sources and distinguish the nature and value of each. Students organize and display information on charts, maps, and graphs in support of the text. Persuasive: Students write to influence, such as to essay on tsunami, persuade, argue, and request. In grade 8, persuasive essays should have a well-defined thesis that makes a clear and belonging, knowledgeable judgment, Eighth grade persuasive essays should present detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning to support arguments, differentiating between facts and essay 2004, opinion, and arranging evidence effectively by anticipating and answering reader concerns and counterarguments. In addition to essays, an eighth grade persuasive writing assignment could be an advertisement, speech, or public service announcement.
In tackling these writing tasks, students use persuasive techniques such as word choice, repetition, emotional appeal, hyperbole, appeal to authority, celebrity endorsement, rhetorical question, irony, symbols, glittering generalities, and card stacking. Creative: Students write to entertain in a variety of essay expressive forms (e.g., realistic fiction, one-act play, suspense story, humorous poems) that according to the type of writing employed, incorporate figurative language, rhythm, dialogue, characterization, plot, and appropriate format. 2004! Responses to Literature: Eighth grade students develop an interpretation exhibiting careful reading and insight. Students should draw inferences about the metal working courses effects of the literary work on its audience and describe their own responses to the writer’s techniques and specific portions of the text. 2004! Eighth graders are expected to support their judgments through references to the text, other works, other authors, or to to writte essay, personal knowledge. Technical Documents: Students in eighth grade write essays to identify the sequence of essay on tsunami 2004 activities needed to design a system, operate a tool, or explain the bylaws of an sports development organization. On Tsunami! These essays include all the factors and variables that need to be considered and use formatting techniques (e.g., headings, differing fonts) to aid comprehension. In addition, eighth-graders choose the appropriate form for their own purpose for writing, including journals, letters, editorials, reviews, poems, memoirs, narratives, and instructions. Grade 8: Writing Evaluation.
Eighth grade students learn to respond constructively to others’ writing and determine if their own writing achieves its purposes. In Grade 8, students also apply criteria to evaluate writing and analyze published examples as models for essay boredofstudies, writing. Writing standards recommend that each student keep and review a collection of his/her own written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to set goals as a writer. In addition, eighth grade students evaluate the purposes and effects of film, print, and technology presentations. Students assess how language, medium, and presentation contribute to essay 2004, meaning. Grade 8: Written English Language Conventions.
Students in courses eighth grade are expected to write with more complex sentences, capitalization, and punctuation. In particular, eighth grade writing standards specify these key markers of proficiency: —Write in complete sentences, including compound and complex sentences. —Use varied sentence types and sentence openings to present a lively and effective personal style. —Identify and use parallelism, including similar grammatical forms, in all written discourse to present items in a series and items juxtaposed for emphasis. —Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and other devices to 2004, indicate clearly the relationship between ideas. —Edit written manuscripts to ensure correct Standard English usage, including subject-verb agreement, noun/pronoun agreement, and the eight parts of speech (noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, conjunction, preposition, interjection). —Use regular and irregular verb tenses appropriately and consistently such as present, past, future, perfect, and courses, progressive. —Use adjectives (comparative and superlative forms) and adverbs appropriately to make writing vivid or precise.
—Use prepositional phrases to elaborate written ideas. —Use conjunctions to connect ideas meaningfully. —Write with increasing accuracy when using pronoun case such as “She stepped between them and essay, us.” —Punctuate correctly to essay schrijven, clarify and enhance meaning such as using hyphens, semicolons, colons, apostrophes, quotation marks, and sentence punctuation. —Write with increasing accuracy when using apostrophes in contractions (doesn’t) and possessives (Texas’s). —Capitalize correctly to 2004, clarify and enhance meaning. —Eighth-graders pay particular attention to capitalization of names of academic courses (e.g., Algebra I) and proper adjectives (e.g., German shepherd, Italian restaurant).
—Use knowledge of spelling rules, orthographic patterns, generalizations, prefixes, suffixes, and roots, including Greek and to writte essay, Latin root words. —Spell derivatives correctly by applying the spellings of bases and affixes. —Spell frequently misspelled words correctly (e.g., their, they’re, there). —Understand the influence of other languages and cultures on on tsunami 2004 the spelling of English words. —Use dictionary, thesaurus, or other resources as necessary and essay application, spell accurately in final drafts. —Write fluidly and legibly in cursive or manuscript as appropriate.
Grade 8: Research and Inquiry. In eighth grade, students select and essay on tsunami, use reference materials and to writte essay, resources as needed for essay on tsunami, writing, revising, and editing final drafts. Students learn how to schrijven, gather information systematically and use writing as a tool for research and inquiry in the following ways: Achieve an effective balance between researched information and original ideas. Organize prior knowledge about a topic in a variety of ways such as by producing a graphic organizer. Ask and evaluate questions for research. Develop ideas leading to essay on tsunami 2004, inquiry, investigation, and research. Take notes, summarize, and organize ideas gained from belonging multiple relevant and authoritative sources. Make use of such tools as outlines, conceptual maps, learning logs, and timelines. Plan and conduct multiple-step information searches using the essay 2004 Internet.
Follow accepted formats for writing research. Give credit for both quoted and paraphrased information in a bibliography by using a consistent and essay application, sanctioned format and methodology for citations. Eighth Grade Writing Tests. In many states, eighth graders take standardized writing assessments, either with pencil and essay on tsunami, paper or on a computer. While tests vary, students are typically given questions about grammar and mechanics, as well as timed essay-writing exercises in which they must write an book essay in response to a writing prompt. On eighth grade essay writing tests, students demonstrate their ability to on tsunami, produce an effective composition for metal, a specific purpose, as well as their command of the conventions of spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, usage, and sentence structure. In some states, students’ revising and editing skills are tested with multiple-choice questions on reading passages. Essay On Tsunami 2004! Students are asked to indicate how a particular sentence might be corrected or improved or how the organization or development of a paragraph might be strengthened.
Tests may also require students to proofread for correct punctuation, capitalization, word choice, and spelling. Another type of question asks students to write a summary statement in response to a reading passage. In addition, 8th grade students are given classroom-based eighth grade writing tests and metal, writing portfolio evaluations. State writing assessments are correlated to state writing standards. These standards-based tests measure what students know in relation to what they’ve been taught.
If students do well on school writing assignments, they should do well on such a test. Educators consider standards-based tests to be the most useful as these tests show how each student is meeting grade-level expectations. 2004! These assessments are designed to pinpoint where each student needs improvement and help teachers tailor instruction to fit individual needs. State departments of education usually include information on writing standards and writing assessments on to writte essay their websites, including testing guidelines and sample questions. Writing Test Preparation.
The best writing test preparation in eighth grade is simply encouraging your student to write, raising awareness of the written word, and offering guidance on writing homework. Talk about on tsunami 2004 writing and share appropriate articles and to writte essay, books with your child. Students learn to write effectively when they write more often. Suggest keeping a journal, writing movie reviews for the family, or writing the procedures for using a new piece of home equipment. Any writing is valuable practice. By becoming familiar with 8th grade writing standards, parents can offer more constructive homework support. Remember, the best writing help for kids is not to correct their essays, but offer positive feedback that prompts them to use the on tsunami 2004 strategies of writing process to revise their own work. Time4Writing Online Writing Courses Support 8th Grade Writing Standards.
Time4Writing is an excellent complement to essay engels schrijven, eighth grade writing curriculum. Developed by classroom teachers, Time4Writing targets the fundamentals of writing. Essay 2004! Students build writing skills and deepen their understanding of the writing process by working on sports standard-based, grade-appropriate writing tasks under the individual guidance of a certified teacher. Writing on a computer inspires many students, even reluctant writers. Learn more about Time4Writing online courses for eighth grade. For more information about general learning objectives for on tsunami, eighth grade students including math and language arts, please visit Time4Learning.com.
*K-12 writing standards are defined by each state. Essay Engels! Time4Writing relies on essay 2004 a representative sampling of state writing standards, notably from Florida, Texas, and essay engels schrijven, California, as well as on the standards published by nationally recognized education organizations, such as the National Council of essay on tsunami 2004 Teachers of English and the International Reading Association.